(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The food of the Gods - A Popular Account of Cocoa"

THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



THE FOOD 
OF THE GODS 

(&ea> /3pa>fia) 

A POPULAR ACCOUNT 
OF COCOA 

BY 

BRANDON HEAD 




LONDON: R. BRIMLEY JOHNSON 
4, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, W. C. 1903 






4 t 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER PAOl 

I. ITS NATURE ----- 1 

IL ITS GROWTH AND CULTIVATION - 25 

III. ITS MANUFACTURE - - - 45 

IV. ITS HISTORY - - - - 71 
V. ITS SOURCES AND VARIETIES - - 91 

Appendices; 

ANCIENT MANUFACTURE OF COCOA - - 103 

BOURNVILLE WORKS SUGGESTION SCHEME - 106 

THE EARLY COCOA HOUSES - - - 109 



[v] 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS. 



EAST INDIAN COOLIES OF A TRINIDAD CACAO ESTATE 

(coloured) - frontispiece 

CEYLON, A HILL CACAO ESTATE - - to face 1 

"TO MAKE A CUP OP COCOA IN PERFECTION " (seep. 19) 1 

CACAO TREES, TRINIDAD - - - to face 3 

ANCIENT MEXICAN DRINKING CUPS - - - 4 

"MOLINILLO," OR CHOCOLATE WHISK - - - 5 

A CACAO HARVEST, TRINIDAD - - - to face 7 

THE COCO-NUT PALM - - - - 8 

COCO-DE-MER - - - - - - 9 

LEAVES AND FLOWER OF THE CUCA SHRUB - - 10 

GATHERING CACAO : SANTA CRUZ, TRINIDAD - to face 11 

PURE DECORTICATED COCOA, MAGNIFIED - - 12 

ADULTERATED COCOA, MAGNIFIED - - - 13 

how the cacao grows - - - to face 17 

CACAO CROP, TRINIDAD - - „ 21 

ANALYTICAL APPARATUS - - - - 20 

CACAO PODS (COLOURED) - - - to face 25 

[vii] 



Vlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



CACAO HARVESTING - 

CEYLON, NURSERY OF CACAO SEEDLINGS 

SAMOA: CACAO IN ITS FOURTH YEAR 

YOUNG CACAO CULTIVATION WITH CATCH CROP 

PODS OF CACAO THEOBROMA - 

VARIETIES OF THE CACAO 

THE HOME OF THE CACAO 

ORTINOLA, MARACAS, TRINIDAD 

GOULET AND WOODEN SPOON - 

CUTLASSES ----- 

CACAO DRYING IN THE SUN - 

LABOURERS' COTTAGE, CACAO ESTATE - 

BASKETS OF CACAO ON PLANTAIN LEAVES 

CACAO TREE AND SEEDLING (COLOURED) 

BOURNVILLE : " THE FACTORY IN A GARDEN " 

„ " ON ARRIVAL AT THE FACTORY " 

„ OFFICE BUILDINGS 

„ CRICKET PAVILION 

„ GIRLS' DINING-HALL 

„ BOOT-SHELF ON STOOL - 

„ THE DINNER HOUR 

„ LABURNAM ROAD 

„ PACKING-ROOM 

„ SUGGESTION BOX 

„ LINDEN ROAD - 

I. FISHING POOL 





paoi 


- 


25 


to face 


27 


»> 


29 


>> 


30 


- 


31 


to face 


32 


» 


35 


11 


36 


- 


37 


- 


37 


to face 


39 


11 


40 


- 


41 


to face 


43 


» 


45 


» 


45 


» 


47 


u 


49 


n 


5.1 


- 


53 


to face 


54 


11 


58 


11 


60 


- 


62 


to face 


63 


ii 


64 



AND MAPS. ix 



FAOl 



BOURNVILLE: ALMSHOUSES - - - to/ace 67 

SECTION OF A COCOA FACTORY (COLOURED) - „ 69 

AMERICAN INDIAN WITH CHOCOLATE POT - - 71 

NATIVE AMERICANS PREPARING COCOA - toface 72 

A CACAO PLANTATION - - - 75 

GRENADA: CACAO DRYING ON TRAYS - to face 77 

MEXICAN DRINKING-VESSELS AND WHISK - - 78 

CACAO TREE, TRINIDAD - - - to face 80 

MEXICAN COCOA WHISK - - - 83 

white's cocoa house - - - toface 87 

CHART OF COCOA - PRODUCING COUNTRIES (COL- 
OURED) ----- toface 91 
SACKS OF CACAO BEANS - - „ 91 
MARACAS VALLEY, TRINIDAD - - „ 92 
MAP OF TRINIDAD (COLOURED) - „ 95 

„ GRENADA, BRITISH WEST INDIES - - 96 

CACAO ESTATE, GRENADA - - - to face 96 

MAP OF PRINCIPE - - - - 97 

„ S. THOMH6 - - - - 98 

CEYLON: CARTING CACAO TO RAIL - - toface 99 

MAP OF CEYLON - - - - 99 

„ SAMOA - - - - - 100 

SAMOA, CLEARING FOR CACAO - - toface 100 

MEXICAN GRINDING-STONE - - - - 104 




Ceylon: A Hill Cacao Estate, 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



I. ITS NATURE. 




WHEN one thinks of 
the marvellously 
nourishing and 
stimulating vir- 
tue of cocoa, and 
of the exquisite 
and irresistible 
dainties prepared 
from it, one can- 
not wonder that the great Linnaeus should have 
named it theo broma, " the food of the gods." 
No other natural product, with the exception of 
milk, can be said to serve equally well as food 
or drink, or to possess nourishing and stimu- 
lating properties in such well-adjusted pro- 
portions. Few, however, realize that in its 

1 



2 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

stimulating properties cocoa ranks ahead of 
coffee, though below tea. As a matter of fact, 
the active principles of all three are alkaloids, 
practically identical and equally effective.* 
Each derives its value from its influence on 
the nervous system, which it stimulates, while 
checking the waste of tissue, but the cocoa-bean 
provides in addition solid food to replace wasted 
tissue. It is, indeed, so closely allied in com- 
position to pure dried milk, that in this respect 
there is little to choose between an absolutely 
pure cocoa essence and the natural fluid, f It 

* According to Drs. Playfair and Lankester : 

Tea contains 3 per cent, theine. 
Coffee „ If „ caffeine. 

Cocoa „ 2 „ theobromine. 

Probably the proportion of caffeine in coffee would be 
more correctly stated as 1 J per cent. Theine and caffeine 
are identical, but theobromine (C 7 H 8 N 4 2 ) differs from both 
in the greater proportion of nitrogen which it contains. 



Flesh formers 
in each hun- 
dred parts. 



t Dr. Johnson's analysis : 




Dried milk 


... 35 


Cocoa essence 


... 34| 


Cocoa-nibs 


... 23 


Best French chocolates 


... 11 




Cacao Trees, Trinidad. 



ITS NATURE. 8 

is this which makes it invaluable as an alterna- 
tive food for invalids or infants. 

An early English writer on this valuable 
product spoke truly when he remarked : " All 
the American travellers have written such 
panegyricks, that I should degrade this royal 
liquor if I should offer any ; yet several of 
these curious travellers and physicians do 
agree in this, that the cocoa has a wonderful 
faculty of quenching thirst, allaying hectick 
heats, of nourishing and fattening the body." 

A modern writer* affords the same testi- 
mony in a more practical form when he records 
that : " Cocoa is of domestic drinks the most 
alimentary; it is without any exception the 
cheapest food that we can conceive, as it may be 
literally termed meat and drink, and were our 
half-starved artisans and over-worked factory 
children induced to drink it, instead of the in- 
nutritious beverage called tea, its nutritive 
qualities would soon develop themselves in their 
improved looks and more robust condition." 

* Mr. 0. L. Symonds, "Commercial Products of the 
Vegetable Kingdom." 

1—2 



4 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

Such a drink well deserved the treatment it 
received at the hands of the Mexicans to 
whom we are indebted for it. At the royal 
banquets frothing chocolate was served in 
golden goblets with finely wrought golden or 




ANCIENT MEXICAN DRINKING CUPS. 
(British Museum.) 

tortoise-shell spoons. The froth in this case 
was of the consistency of honey, so that when 
eaten cold it would gradually dissolve in the 
mouth. Here is a luscious suggestion for 
twentieth century housewives, handed to them 
from five hundred years ago ! 

In health or sickness, infancy or age, at home 



ITS VALUE. 5 

or on our travels, nothing is so generally useful, 
so sustaining and invigorating. Far better 
than the majority of vaunted substitutes for 
human milk as an infant's food, to supplement 
what other milk may be available ; incomparable 
as a family drink for breakfast or supper, when 
both tea and coffee are really out of place 
unless the latter is nearly all milk ; prepared as 
chocolate to eat on journeys, and in many other 
ways, cocoa is «^^ 



a constant 
stand-by. Tra- 



vpllincnnT^flfit molinillo (little mill) or chocolate 

© * WHISK* 

ern deserts on 

mule-back, the present writer has never been 
•without a tin of cocoa essence if he could help 
it, as, whatever straits he might be put to for 
provisions, so long as he had this and water, re- 
freshment was possible, and whenever milk was 
available he had command in his lonely tent 
of a luxury unsurpassed in Paris or London. 
For the sustenance of invalids he has found 
nothing better in the home-land than a nightly 
cup of cocoa essence boiled with milk. 



6 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

Add to these experiences a love for the 
flavour which dates from childhood, and his 
admiration for this " food of the gods " will be 
appreciated, even if not sympathized in, by 
the few who have escaped its spell. Its value 
in the eyes of practical as well as scientific men 
is sufficiently demonstrated by its increasing 
use in naval and military commissariats, in 
hospitals, and in public institutions of all 
classes. In the British Navy, which down to 
1830 consumed more cocoa than the rest of the 
nation together, it is served out daily, and in 
the army twice or thrice a week. Brillat 
Savarin, the author of the "Physiologie du 
Goftt," remarks : " The persons who habitually 
take chocolate are those who enjoy the most 
equable and constant health, and are least 
liable to a multitude of illnesses which spoil 
the enjoyment of life." 

It certainly behoves us, therefore, to learn 
something more of such a valuable article than 
may be gleaned from the perusal of an adver- 
tisement, or the instructions on a packet con- 
taining it. There is something more than 









fv*r 

/ :. '-a...- ■■• v 












u 



INTERESTING HISTORY. 7 

usually fascinating even in its history, in all 
the tales regarding this treasure-trove of the 
New World, and in the curious methods by 
which it has been treated. The story of its 
discovery takes us into the atmosphere of the 
Elizabethan period, and into the company of 
Cortes and Columbus ; to learn of its cultiva- 
tion and preparation we are transported to the 
glorious realms of the tropics, and to some of 
the most healthful centres of labour in the old 
country — in one case to the model village of the 
English Midlands. It is therefore an exceed- 
ingly pleasant round that lies before us in investi- 
gating this subject, as well as one which will 
afford much useful knowledge for every -day life. 

Before proceeding to a closer acquaintance 
with the origin of cocoa, it may be well to 
clear the ground of possible misconceptions 
which occasionally cause confusion. 

First, there is the word " cocoa " itself, an un- 
fortunate inversion of the name of the tree from 
which it is derived, the cacao.* A still more 

* The Cacao tkeobroma. There are several other varieties 
of cacao, but none of them produce the famous food. 



8 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS. 



unfortunate corruption is that of " coco-nut " 
to " cocoa-nut," which is altogether inexcusable. 




THE COCO-NUT PALM. 



In this case it is therefore quite correct to drop 
the concluding "a," as the coco-nut has nothing 



MISCONCEPTIONS. 9 

whatever to do with cocoa or the cacao, being 
the fruit of a palm* in every way distinct 
from it, as will be seen from the accompanying 
illustration. 

The name "coco" is also applied to another 




COCO-DK-MER. 



quite distinct fruit, the coco-de-mer, or "sea- 
coco," somewhat resembling a coco-nut in its 
pod, but weighing about 28 lbs., and likewise 
growing on a lofty tree; its habitat is the 
Seychelles Islands. Sometimes also, confusion 
arises between the cacao and the coca or cuca,f 

* The Cocos nucifera, or "nut-bearing coco." 
t Erythroxylon coca. 



10 « THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

a small shrub like a blackthorn, also widely 
cultivated in Central America, from the leaves 
of which the powerful narcotic cocaine is ex- 
tracted. 




LEAVES AND FLOWER OF THE CUOA SHRUB. 

In the second place, the name "cocoa," which 
is strictly applicable only to the pure ground 
nib or its concentrated essence, is sometimes 
unjustifiably applied to preparations of cocoa 
with starch, alkali, sugar, etc., which it would 
be more correct to describe as "chocolate 
powder," chocolate being admittedly a con- 
fection of cocoa with other substances and 
flavourings. 

" Chocolate " is, therefore, a much wider term 



ITS ENGLISH NAMES. 11 

than "cocoa," embracing both the food and 
the drink prepared from the cacao, and is the 
Mexican name, chocolatl, slightly modified, 
having nothing to do with the word cacao, in 
Mexican cacauatl* In the New World it was 
compounded of cacao, maize, and flavourings to 
which the Spaniards, on discovering it, added 
sugar, cinnamon, vanilla, and other ingredients, 
such as musk and ambergris, cloves and nut- 
megs, almonds and pistachios, anise, and even 
red peppers or chillies. " Sometimes," says a 
treatise on " The Natural History of Chocolate," 
" China [quinine] and assa [foetida ?] ; and some- 
times steel and rhubarb, may be added for 
young and green ladies." 

In our own times it is unfortunately common 
to add potato-starch, arrowroot, etc., to the 
cocoa, and yet to sell it by the name of the pure 
article. Such preparations thicken in the cup, 
and are preferred by some under the mistaken 
impression that this is a sign of its containing 
more nutriment instead of less. Although not 
so wholesome, there could be no objection to 
* Or, as otherwise written, cacava quahuitl. 



12 « THE POOD OP THE GODS. 1 * 

these additions so long as the preparations 
were not labelled " cocoa," and were sold at a 
lower price. 




PUKE DECORTICATED COCOA, HIOHLT MAGNIFIED. 

Such adulteration is rendered possible by the 
presence in the bean of a large proportion of 
fatty matter or cocoa-butter, which renders it 
too rich for most digestions. To overcome this 
difficulty one or other of two methods is avail- 
able : (1) Lowering the percentage of fat by the 
addition of starch, sugar, etc. ; or (2) removing 
a large proportion of the fat by some extrac- 



ADULTERATIONS. 18 

tive process ; this latter method being in every 
respect preferable to that first mentioned, 
In order to avoid the expense and trouble 




COCOA ADULTERATED WITH ARROWROOT OR POTATO STARCH. 

consequent on the latter process, some manu- 
facturers add alkali, by which means the free 
fatty acids are saponified, and the fat is held in 
a state of emulsion, thus giving the cocoa a 
false appearance of solubility. 

Another effect of the alkali is to impart to 
the beverage a much darker colour, from its 
action on the natural red colouring matter of 



14 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

the cocoa, this darkening being often taken, un- 
fortunately, as indicative of increased strength. 
On this account the presence of added alkali 
should be regarded as an adulteration, unless 
notified on the package in which the cocoa is 
contained. 

A more subtle treatment with alkali for the 
same purpose is the addition to the pulverized 
bean of carbonate of ammonia, or caustic 
ammonia. This is afterwards volatilized by 
the application of heat. Scents and flavour- 
ings are then added to disguise their smell and 
taste. 

Besides these combinations of cocoa with 
starch, sugar, etc., and cocoa treated with alkali, 
there are now found on the market mixtures 
of cocoa with such substances as kola, malt, 
hops, etc., sold under strange-sounding names, 
reminding one of the many mixtures that are 
made up as medicines rather than food. While 
the substances thus incorporated are of value 
in their place, they possess no virtues which 
are absent from the pure cocoa, and cannot be 
in any way considered an improvement of cocoa 



IMITATIONS. 15 

as food. The sooner this practice of drug 
taking under cover of diet comes to an end the 
better it will be for the national health. 

Formerly Venetian red, umber, peroxide of 
iron, and even brick-dust, were employed to 
produce a cheaper article, but modern science 
and legislation combined have rendered such 
practices almost impossible. As early as the 
reign of George III. an Act* was passed, pro- 
viding that, "if any article made to resemble 
cocoa shall be found in the possession of any 
dealer, under the name of 'American cocoa' 
or ' English cocoa/ or any other name of cocoa, 
it shall be forfeited, and the dealer shall forfeit 
£100." Yet this Act was allowed to become so 
much a dead letter that in 1851 the Lancet pub- 
lished the analysis of fifty-six preparations sold 
as " cocoa," of which only eight were free from 
adulteration. In some of the " soluble cocoas," 
the adulteration was as high as 65 per cent., 
potato starch in one case forming 50 per cent, 
of the sample. The majority of the samples 
were found to be coloured with mineral or 
* 10 George III., c. 10. 



16 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

earthy pigments, and specimens treated with red 
lead are on exhibition at South Kensington. 

The inclusion of the husk or shell in some of 
the cheaper forms of chocolate is another repre- 
hensible practice (strongly condemned), as they 
do not possess the qualities for which the kernel 
or nib is so highly prized. To prevent this 
practice it was enacted in 1770 that the shells 
or husks should be seized or destroyed, and the 
officer seizing them rewarded up to 20s. per 
hundredweight. From these a light, but not 
unpalatable, table decoction is still prepared in 
Ireland and elsewhere, under the designation of 
" miserables." 

Among other beverages which have from time 
to time been produced from the cacao was a fer- 
mented drink much in vogue at the Mexican 
Court, to which it appears from the accounts 
of the conquest that Montezuma was addicted, 
as " after the hot dishes (300 in number) had 
been removed, every now and then was handed 
to him a golden pitcher filled with a kind of 
liquor made from cacao, which is very exciting." 
One variety, called zaea, drunk by the Itzas, 




How the Cacao Grows* 

(Showing Leaf. Flower, and Fruit.) 



AS A BEVERAGE. if 

consisted of cocoa mixed with a fermented 
liquor prepared from maize ; but a more harm- 
less invention was a drink composed of cocoa- 
butter and maize. 

There remain three forms in which pure cocoa 
may b6 prepared as a beverage : 

1. Cocoa-nibs. — The natural broken segments 
of the roasted cocoa-bean, after the shell has 
been removed, prepared for table as an infu- 
sion by prolonged simmering. 

It is strange that this ridiculous and wasteful 
means is still in use at all, as next to none of the 
valuable portions of the nib are extracted. The 
quantity of matter removed by the hot water is 
so small, that close upon 90 per cent, of the 
nourishing and feeding constituents are left 
behind in the undissolved sediment, the sub- 
stances extracted being principally salts and 
colouring matters. One can but suppose that 
the long habit of drinking an infusion from 
coffee-beans and tea-leaves has fixed in the 
mind the erroneous idea that the substance of 
the cocoa-bean is also valueless. The fact re- 
mains, however, that it is still customary at 

2 



18 "THE tOOD OF THE GODS.* 

some hydropathic establishments, and perhaps 
in a few other instances, for doctors to order 
"nibs" for their patient, which may some- 
times be accounted for by injury having 
resulted from drinking one of the many 
" faked " cocoas offered for sale ; the order for 
" nibs " being a despairing effort to obtain the 
genuine article. 

2. Consolidated Nibs — i.e., cocoa-nibs ground 
between heated stones, whence it flows in a 
paste of the consistency of cream, which, when 
cool, hardens into a cake containing all the 
cocoa-butter. Cocoa in this form (mixed with 
sugar before cooling) is served in the British 
Navy — a somewhat wasteful and inconvenient 
practice, as when stirred, the excess of fat at 
once floats to the top of the cup, and is generally 
removed with a spoon, to make the drink more 
appetising. 

3. Cocoa Essence. — This is the same article 
as No. 2, with about 60 per cent, of the natural 
butter removed ; consequently the proportion of 
albuminous and stimulating elements is greatly 
increased. It is prepared instantly by pouring 



CONSTITUENTS. 19 

boiling water upon it, thus forming a light 
beverage with all the strength and flesh-form- 
ing constituents of the decorticated bean.* 

Chemical analysis of cacao-nibs and cocoa 
essence shows them to contain on an average : 

Cacao-nibs. Cocoa Essence. 



Cocoa-butter 


50 parts. 


... 30 p 


Albuminoid substances 


16 „ 


... 22 


Carbohydrates (sugar, starch, 






and digestible cellulose) . . . 


21 „ 


... 30 


Theobromine 


1-5 „ 


... 2 


Salts 


3-5 „ 


... 5 


Other constituents 


8 „ 


... 11 



100 100 

The cocoa-butter when clarified is of a pale 

* To make cocoa in perfection, for three breakfast-cups : 
in a quart jug (with rounded bottom and narrower neck 
by preference) mix 1$ dessert spoonfuls (f oz.) of Cocoa 
Essence with equal bulk of powdered white sugar, and stir 
to a thin paste with a little boiling water. Mix in an 
enamelled saucepan one breakfast-cup of milk with two 
cups of water (cups to be about £ full), and boil with care. 
When on the boil, pour this over the contents of the jug, 
and whisk vigorously for a few seconds (see illustration, 
p. 1). Serve to table without delay. To make a richer drink, 
use equal parts of milk and water. To ensure the beverage 

2—2 



20 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS/ 



yellow colour, and as it melts at about 90° F. 
it is of great value for pharmaceutical purposes, 
especially as it only becomes rancid when sub- 
jected to excessive heat and light, as to the 
direct rays of the sun. 




ANALYTICAL APPARATUS. 



The albuminoid or nitrogenous constituents will 
be seen to form about a sixth of the whole 

being served as hot as possible, it is desirable to warm the 
jug before the cocoa is put into it. The effect of this 
method of preparation is to impart to the cocoa a more 
mellow taste, and to produce a deep froth on the surface, 
giving it a most appetizing appearance. The thorough 
mixing to which the cocoa is subjected also materially 
lessens the amount of sediment in the bottom of the cup. 



NUTRIMENT. 21 

nib, or more than a fifth of the cocoa essence, 
and to their presence is due the fact that abso- 
lutely pure cocoa is such a remarkable flesh- 
ftirmer. 

The carbohydrates, producing warmth and 
fat, are also important food substances, the 
proportion of which, while forming about a 
fifth of the whole bean, rises to close upon a 
third of the essence. 

Cocoa also contains a volatile oil, from which 
it derives its peculiar and delicious aroma. 

Thus nearly nine-tenths of the cacao-bean may 
be assimilated by the digestive organs, while 
three-fourths of tea and coffee are thrown away 
as waste. For the same bulk, therefore, cocoa 
is said to yield thirteen times the nutriment of 
tea, and four and a half times that of coffee. 
Its value as a substitute for mother's milk has 
already been alluded to, but may well be em- 
phasized by a quotation from a paper read 
before the Surgical Society of Ireland in 1877 
by one of its Fellows, Mr. Faussett : 

" Without presuming to pass any judgment on the 
many artiBcial substitutes which, on alleged chemical 



22 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

and scientific principles, have from time to time been 
pressed forward under the notice of the profession and 
the public to take the place of mother's milk, I beg 
to call attention to a very cheap and simple article 
which is easily procurable — viz., cocoa, and which, 
when pure and deprived of an excess of fatty matter, 
may safely be relied on, as cocoa in the natural state 
abounds in a number of valuable nutritious principles, 
in fact, in every material necessary for the growth, 
development, and sustenance of the body/ 9 

After giving some remarkable cases of children 
being restored from " the last stage of exhaus- 
tion " by its use, and " continued through the 
whole period of infancy," with the effect of 
their becoming fine, healthy children, he con- 
cluded by saying : 

" I beg therefore respectfully to commend cocoa, as 
an article of infant's food, to the notice of my pro- 
fessional brethren, especially those who, holding office 
under the Poor Laws, have such large and extensive 
opportunities of testing its value." 

As a beverage for mothers or nurses cocoa is 
recommended by Dr. Milner Fothergill, in his 
work on " The Food we Eat," in preference to 



TESTIMONY. 23 

porter, stout or ale, an opinion now becoming 
generally adopted. It may, therefore, be re- 
garded as the indispensable, all-round nursery 
food, if not the constant stand-by of the 
family. 

That it is as nutritious for old as well as 
young we have an interesting proof in the fact 
that the first Englishman born in Jamaica, 
Colonel Montague James, who lived to the age 
of 104, took scarcely any food but cocoa and 
chocolate for the last thirty years of his life. 
For athletes and all who desire the development 
of the muscular tissues, its use is most beneficial. 
Professor Cavill, in his celebrated swim from 
Southampton to Portsmouth, and his nearly 
successful attempt to swim across the English 
Channel, considered it to be the most con- 
centrated and sustaining food he could use for 
that trying test of endurance. 

In his a Treatise on Food and Dietetics," Dr. 
Pavy remarks that : 

"Containing, as pure cocoa does, twice as. much 
nitrogenous matter, and twenty-five times as much 
fatty matter ao wheaten flour, with a notable quan- 



24 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

tity of starch, and an agreeable aroma to tempt the 
palate, it cannot be otherwise than a valuable alimen- 
tary material. It has been compared in this respect 
to milk. It conveniently furnishes a large amount of 
agreeable nourishment in a small bulk, and, taken 
with bread, will suffice, in the absence of any other 
food, to furnish a good repast." 

Indeed, the value of cocoa as food for ordin- 
ary mortals as well as for mythical beings 
cannot be better summed up than in the words 
of Professor Lankester, Superintendent of the 
Food Collections at South Kensington, who 
declares : 

" It can hardly be regarded as a substitute for tea 
and coffee; it is, in fact, a substitute for all other 
kinds of food, and when taken with some form of 
bread, little or nothing else need be added at a meal. 
The same may be said of chocolate." 




Cacao Pods 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



II. ITS GROWTH AND CULTIVATION. 



^iOCOA is now grown in many parts of the 

tropics, reference to 
which is made in 
another chapter. 
The conditions, 
however, do not 
greatly vary, and 
there are prob- 
ably many lands 
in the tropi- 
cal belt where 
it is yet un- 
known that possess soil well suited to its 
extended cultivation. 

The cacao-tree grows wild in the forests of 
Central America, and varieties have been found 
also in Jamaica and other West Indian islands, 

[25] 




26 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

and in South America. It does not thrive more 
than fifteen degrees north or south of the 
equator, and even within these limits it is not 
very successfully grown more than 600 feet 
above the sea-level; in many districts where 
sugar formerly monopolized the plains, it was 
supposed that cocoa needed an altitude of 
at least 200 feet, but experiments of planting 
on the old sugar estates and other low-lying 
places are generally successful where the soil is 
good, as in Trinidad, Cuba, and British Guiana. 
It has been found that the expense saved in 
roads, labour, and transit on the level has been 
very considerable in comparison with that in- 
curred on some of the hill estates. 

In appearance the cacao-tree is not greatly 
unlike one of our own orchard trees, and 
trained by the pruning knife it grows similar 
in shape to a well-kept apple tree, no very 
low boughs being left, so that a man on horse- 
back can generally pass freely down the long 
glades. Left to nature, it will in good soil reach 
a height of over twenty feet, and its branches 
will extend for ten feet from the ceutre, 



PLANTING. 9TI 

The best soil is that made by the decom- 
position of volcanic rock, so that it is a common 
sight to find areas strewn with large boulders 
turned into a cocoa plantation of great fertility; 
but the best trees of all lie along the vegas 
which intersect the hills, where the soil is deep, 
and the stream winding among the trees sup- 
plies natural irrigation. The tree also grows 
well in loams and the richer marls, but will 
not thrive on clay and other heavy soils. 

The cacao is one of the tenderest of tropical 
growths, and will not flourish in any exposed 
position, for which reason large shade belts are 
left along exposed ridges and other parts of a 
hill estate, thus greatly reducing the total area 
under cultivation, in comparison with an estate 
of equal extent on the level plains, where no 
shade belts are necessary. 

The beans are planted either "at stake," — 
when three beans are put in round each stake, the 
one thriving best after the first year being left 
to mature, — or " from nursery/' whence, after a 
few months' growth in bamboo or palm-leaf 
baskets, they are transplanted into the clearing. 



28 « THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

The preparation of the land is the first and 
greatest expense ; trees have to be felled, and 
bush cut down and spread over the land, so 
that the sun can quickly render it combustible. 
When all is clear, the cacao is put in among a 
"catch crop" of vegetables (the cassava, tania, 
pigeon-pea, and others), and frequently bananas, 
though, as taking more nutriment from the soil, 
they are sometimes objected to. But the seed- 
ling cacao needs a shade, and as it is some 
years before it comes into bearing, it is usual to 
plant the " catch crop " for the sake of a small 
return on the land, as well as to meet this 
need. 

In Trinidad, at the same time that the cacao* 
is planted at about twelve feet centres, large 
forest trees are also planted at from fifty to 
sixty feet centres, to provide permanent shade. 
The tree most used for this purpose is the 
Bois Immortelle (Erythrina umbrosa) ; but 
others are also employed, and experiments are 

* For full information on the subject of planting, see 
Simmond's "Tropical Agriculture" (Spon, London and 
New York); NichoU's "Tropical Agriculture" (Macmillan). 



SHADE TREES. 29 

now being made on some estates to grow rubber 
as a shade tree. In recent clearings in Samoa, 
trees are left standing at intervals to serve this 
end. 

In Grenada, British West Indies, and some 
other districts, shade is entirely dispensed with, 
and the trees are planted at about eight feet 
centres, thus forming a denser foliage. By this 
means at least 500 trees will be raised on an 
acre, against less than 300 in Trinidad, the 
result showing almost invariably a larger out- 
put from the Grenada estates. This practice is 
better suited to steep hillside plantations than 
to those in open valleys or on the plains* 

The cacao leaves, at first a tender yellowish- 
brown, ultimately turn to a bright green, and 
attain a considerable size, often fourteen to 
eighteen inches in length, sometimes even 
larger. The tree is subject to scale insects, 
which attack the leaf, also to grubs, which 
quickly rot the limbs and trunks, this last 
being at one time a very serious pest in Ceylon. 
If left to Nature the trees are quickly covered 
with lichen, moss, " vines," ferns, and innumer- 



80 " THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

able parasitic growths, and the cost of keeping 
an estate free from all the natural enemies 
which would suck the strength of the tree and 
lessen the crop is very great. 

The cacao will bloom in its third year, but 
does not bear fruit till its fourth or fifth. The 
flower is small, out of all proportion to the 
size of the mature fruit. Little clusters of 
these tiny pink and yellow blossoms show in 
many places along the old wood of the tree, 
often from the upright trunk itself, and within 
a few inches of the ground ; they are extremely 
delicate, and a planter will be satisfied if every 
third or fourth produces fruit. In dry weather 
or cold, or wind, the little pods only too quickly 
shrivel into black shells ; but if the season be 
good they as quickly swell, till, in the course of 
three or four months, they develop into full 
grown pods from seven to twelve inches long. 
During the last month of ripening they are 
subject to the attack of a fresh group of 
enemies — squirrels, monkeys, rats, birds, deer, 
and others, some of them particularly annoying, 
as it is often found that when but a small hole 



e 



o 



n 






< 



SI 




HARVESTS. 31 

has been made, and a bean or so extracted, the 
animal passes on to similarly attack another 
pod ; such pods rot at once. Snakes generally 
abound in the cacao regions, and are never 
killed, being regarded as the planters best 
friends, from their hostility to his animal foes. 
A boa will probably destroy more than the 
most zealous hunter's gun. 




PODS OF CACAO THBOBROMA. 



From its twelfth to its sixtieth year, or later, 
each tree will bear from fifty to a hundred and 
fifty pods, according to the season, each pod 
containing from thirty-six to forty-two beans. 
Eleven pods will produce about a pound of 
cured beans, and the average yield of a large 
estate will be, in some cases, four hundredweight 



32 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

per acre, in others, twice as much. The trees 
bear nearly all the year round, but only two 
harvests are gathered, the most abundant from 
November to January, known as the " Christmas 
crop," and a smaller picking about June, known 
as the " St. Johns crop." The trees throw off 
their old leaves about the time of picking, or 
soon after ; should the leaves change at any 
other time, the young flower and fruit will also 
probably wither. 

Of the many varieties of the cacao, the best 
known are the criollo,forastero 9 and calabacilla. 
The criollo ("native") fruit is of average size, 
characterized by a " pinched " neck and a curving 
point. This is the best kind, though not the most 
productive ; it is largely planted in Venezuela, 
Columbia and Ceylon, and produces a bean 
light in colour and delicate in flavour. The 
forastero (" foreign ") pod is long and regular in 
shape, deeply furrowed, and generally of a rough 
surface. The calabacilla (" little calabash ") is 
smooth and round, like the fruit after which 
it is named. All varieties are seen in bearing 
with red, yellow, purple, and sometimes green 



CACAO 

CK10LLO, 




CACAO CALABAC1LLA 



Varieties of the Cacao* 



CACAO PODS. 88 

pods, the colour not being necessarily an indica- 
tion of ripeness. 

On breaking open the pod, the beans are seen 
clinging in a cluster round a central fibre, the 
whole embedded in a white sticky pulp, through 
which the red skin of the cacao-bean shows a 
delicate pink. The pulp has the taste of acetic 
acid, refreshing in a hot climate, but soon dries 
if exposed to the sun and air. The pod or 
husk is of a porous, woody nature, from a 
quarter to half an inch thick, which, when 
thrown aside on warm moist soil, rots in a day 
or two. 

Much has been written of life on a cocoa 
estate ; and all who have enjoyed the proverbial 
hospitality of a West Indian or Ceylon planter, 
highly praise the conditions of their life. The 
description of an estate in the northern hills of 
Trinidad will serve as an example. The other 
industry of this island is sugar, in cultivat 
ing which the coloured labourers work in the 
broiling sun, as near to the steaming lagoon 
as they may in safety venture. Later on in 
the season the long rows between the stifling 

3 



84 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

canes have to be hoed ; then, when the 
time of " crop " arrives, the huge mills in the 
tbsine are set in motion, and for the longest 
possible hours of daylight the workers are in 
the field, loading mule-cart or light railway 
with massive canes. In the yard around the 
crushing-mills the shouting drivers bring their 
mule-teams to the mouth of the hopper, and 
the canes are bundled into the crushing rollers 
with lightning speed. The mills run on. into 
the night, and the hours of sleep are only 
those demanded by stern necessity, until the 
crop is safely reaped and the last load of canes 
reduced to shredded megass and dripping 
syrup. 

But upon the cocoa estate there is lasting 
peace. From the railway on the plain we climb 
the long valley, our strong-boned mule or lithe 
Spanish horse taking the long slopes at a 
pleasant amble, standing to cool in the ford of 
the river we cross and re-cross, or plucking the 
young shoots of the graceful bamboos so often 
fringing our path. Villages and stragglin 
cottages, with palm thatch and adobe walls, are 



a 



A CACAO ESTATE. 35 

passed, orange or bread-fruit shading the little 
garden, and perhaps a mango towering over 
all. The proprietor is still at work on the 
plantation, but his wife is preparing the evening 
meal, while the children, almost naked, play in 
the sunshine. 

The cacao-trees of neighbouring planters come 
right down to the ditch by the roadside, and 
beneath dense foliage, on the long rows of 
stems hang the bright glowing pods. Above 
all towers the bois immortelle, called by the 
Spaniards la rnadre del cacao, "the mother of the 
cacao." In January or February the immortelle 
sheds its leaves and bursts into a crown of flame- 
coloured blossom. As we reach the shoulder of 
the hill, and look down on the cacao-filled hollow, 
with the immortelle above all, it is a sea of golden 
glory, an indescribably beautiful scene. Now 
we note at the roadside a plant of dragon's 
blood, and if we peer among the trees there is 
another just within sight ; this, therefore, is the 
boundary of two estates. At an opening in the 
trees a boy slides aside the long bamboos which 
form the gateway, and a short canter along 

3—2 



86 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS" 

a grass track brings us to the open savanna 
or pasture around the homestead. 

Here are grazing donkeys, mules, and cattle, 
while the chickens run under the shrubs for 
shelter, reminding one of home. The house is 
surrounded with crotons and other brilliant 
plants, beyond which is a rose garden, the 
special pride of the planter's wife. If the sun 
has gone down behind the western hills, the 
boys will come out and play cricket in the 
hour before sunset. These savannas are the 
beauty-spots of a country clothed in woodland 
from sea-shore to mountain-top. 

Next morning we are awaked by a blast 
from a conch-shell. It is 6.30, and the mist 
still clings in the valley; the sun will not 
be over the hills for another hour or more, so 
in the cool we join the labourers on the mule- 
track to the higher land, and for a mile or 
more follow a stream into the heart of the 
estate. If it is crop-time, the men will carry 
a goulet — a hand of steel, mounted on a long 
bamboo — by the sharp edges of which the pods 
are cut from the higher branches without 



HARVESTING. 



87 



injury to the tree. Men and women all carry 
cutlasses, the one instrument needful for all 
work on the estate, serving not only for reap- 




GOTTLET AND WOODEN SPOON. 



ing the lower pods, but for pruning and weeding, 
or " cutlassing," as the process of clearing away 
the weed and brush is called. 





CUTLASSES. 



Gathering the pods is heavy work, always 
undertaken by men. The pods are collected 
from beneath the trees and taken to a convenient 



38 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

heap, if possible near to a running stream, where 
the workers can refill their drinking-cups for 
the mid-day meal. Here women sit, with 
trays formed of the broad banana leaves, on 
which the beans are placed as they extract 
them from the pod with wooden spoons. The 
result of the days work, placed in panniers on 
donkey-back, is " crooked " down to the cocoa- 
house, and that night remains in box -like 
bins, with perforated sides and bottom, covered 
in with banana leaves. Every twenty-four 
hours these bins are emptied into others, so 
that the contents are thoroughly mixed, the 
process being continued for four days or more, 
according to circumstances. 

This is known as " sweating." Day by day the 
pulp becomes darker, as fermentation sets in, 
and the temperature is raised to about 140° F. 
During fermentation a dark sour liquid runs 
away from the sweat-boxes, which is, in fact, a 
very dilute acetic acid, but of no commercial 
value. During the process of "sweating" the 
cotyledons of the cocoa-bean, which are at first 
a purple colour and very compact in the skin, 



CURING THE BEANS. 39 

lose their brightness for a duller brown, and 
expand the skin, giving the bean a fuller shape. 
When dry, a properly cured bean should crush 
between the finger and thumb. 

Finally the beans are turned on to a tray to 
dry in the sun. They are still sticky, but of 
a brown, mahogany colour. Among them are 
pieces of fibre and other "trash/* as well as 
small, undersized beans, or "balloons," as the 
nearly empty shell of an unformed bean is 
called. While a man shovels the beans into 
a heap, a group of women, with skirts kilted 
high, tread round the sides of the heap, 
separating the beans that still hold together. 
Then the beans are passed on to be spread in 
layers on trays in the full heat of the tropical 
sun, the temperature being upwards of 140° F.* 
When thus spread, the women can readily pick 
out the foreign matter and undersized beans. 
Two or three days will suffice to dry them, after 
which they are put in bags for the markets of 
the world, and will keep with but very slight 
loss of weight or aroma for a year or more. 
* See plate facing p. 77. 



40 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

Between crops the labourers are employed in 
" cutlassing/' pruning, and cleaning the land 
and trees. Nearly all the work is in pleasant 
shade, and none of it harder than the duties of 
a market gardener in our own country ; indeed, 
the work is less exacting, for daylight lasts 
at most but thirteen hours, limiting the time 
that a man can see in the forest : ten hours 
per day, with rests for meals, is the average 
time spent on the estate. Wages are paid once 
a month, and a whole holiday follows pay-day, 
when the stores in town are visited for needful 
supplies. Other holidays are not infrequent, 
and between crops the slacker days give ample 
time for the cultivation of private gardens. 

Labourers from India are largely imported 
by the Government under contract with the 
planters, and the strictest regulations are ob- 
served in the matter of housing, medical aid, 
etc. At the expiration of the term of contract 
(about six years) a free pass is granted to 
return to India, if desired. Many, however, 
prefer to remain in their adopted home, and 
become planters themselves, or continue to 



PLANTATION LABOUR. 41 

labour on the smaller estates, which are 
generally worked by free labour, as the pre- 
parations for contracted labour are expensive, 
and can only be undertaken on a large scale. 

The natives of India work on very friendly 
terms with the coloured people of the islands, 
the descendants of the old African slaves, and 




BASKETS OF CACAO ON PLANTAIN LEAVES. 

the cocoa estate provides a healthy life for all, 
with a home amid surroundings of the most 
congenial kind.* 

In other cocoa-growing countries processes 
vary somewhat. On the larger estates artificial 
drying is slowly superseding the natural method, 

* See frontispiece. 



42 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

for though the sun at its best is all that is needed, 
a showery day will seriously interfere with the 
process, even though the sliding roof is promptly 
pulled across to keep the rain from the trays. 

In Venezuela an old Spanish custom still 
prevails of sprinkling a fine red earth over the 
beans in the process of drying ; this plan has 
little to recommend it, unless it be for the pur- 
pose of long storage in warehouses in the tropics, 
when the " claying " may protect the bean from 
mildew and preserve the aroma. In Ceylon it 
is usual to thoroughly wash the beans after 
the process of fermentation, thus removing all 
remains of the pulp, and rendering the shell 
more tender and brittle. Such beans arrive on 
the market in a more or less broken state, and 
it seems probable that they are more subject 
to contamination owing to the thinness of the 
shell. The best " estate " cocoa from Ceylon has 
a very bright, clear appearance, and commands 
a high price on the London market ; this cocoa 
is of the pure criollo strain, light brown (pale 
burnt sienna) in colour. 

The valleys of Trinidad and Grenada have 




Cacao Tree and Seedling 



LONDON MARKET. 43 

grown cocoa for upwards of a hundred years, 
but up to the present time very little in the 
way of manuring has been done beyond the 
natural vegetable deposits of the forest. In 
many estates of recent years cattle have been 
quartered in temporary pens on the hills, 
moving on month by month, with a large 
central pen for the stock down on the savanna. 

The cocoa-beans are shipped to Europe in 
bags containing from one to one and a half 
hundredweight, and are disposed of by the 
London brokers nearly every Tuesday in the 
year at a special sale in the Commercial Sale 
Room in Mincing Lane. 

The cacao-tree has sometimes been grown 
from seed in hot-houses in this country, but 
always with difficulty, for not only must a 
mean temperature of at least 80° F. be main- 
tained, but the tree must be shielded from all 
draught. Among the most successful are the 
trees grown by Mr. James Epps, Jun., of Nor- 
wood, by whose kind permission the accom- 
panying sketches from life were made. Success 
has only crowned his efforts after many years 



44 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

of patient care. To grow a mere plant was 
comparatively simple, but to produce even a 
flower needed long tending, and involved much 
disappointment ; while to secure fruition by 
cross-fertilization was a still more difficult task, 
accomplished in England probably on only one 
other occasion. 




o 



O 



J3 

H 



"THE F001> OF THE GODS." 



in. ITS MANUFACTURE. 




UP to this point 
the opera- 



tions described 
have taken 
place in 
the lands 
where cacao is 
produced. To 
watch the fur- 
ther processes 
in its develop- 
ment as an article of food, let us in imagination 
follow one of the shiploads of cacao on its sea 
journey from the far tropics to one of the 
countries of the old world, until the sacks of 
beans are finally deposited at a cocoa factory. 
An English factory, that of Messrs. Cadbury, 
[45] 



^^m^ 



46 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

at Bournville, affords an excellent illustration 
of its manufacture, not only because about a 
third of all the beans imported into this 
country are treated there, but also because this 
treatment is effected amid ideal surroundings. 
Half a century ago Messrs. Cadbury Brothers 
employed but a dozen or twenty hands, and 
until within the last twenty-six years the firm 
was established in the town of Birmingham. 
The need for greater accommodation for the 
rapidly growing business, and a desire to secure 
improved conditions for the work-people, led to 
the removal of the factory to a distance of 
about four miles south of the city. A number 
of cottages erected for the work-people in those 
early days became the nucleus of a great scheme 
which in the last few years has expanded into 
the model village of Bournville, a name taken 
from the neighbouring Bourn stream. Year by 
year the factory grew and developed, until the 
green hay-fields, with the trout stream flowing 
through them, became gradually covered with 
buildings. To-day the factory seems like a 
small town in itself, intersected by streets, and 




bo 

G 



3 



3 
6 



> 

2 

a 
o 

m 



THE BOORNVILLE FACTORY. 47 

surrounded by its own railway. But the 
greenness of the country clings wherever a 
chance is afforded, ivy and other creepers 
adorning the brick walls, window boxes bright 
with flowers, and trees planted here and there ; 
for no opportunity has been neglected of 
making the surroundings beautiful. 

Taking train from the city, glimpses can be 
caught, as we near our destination, of the 
pretty houses and gardens of the village, 
forming a great contrast to the densely popu- 
lated district of Stirchley on the other side of 
the line. Stepping on to the station, we are 
greeted by a whiff of the most delicious fra- 
grance, which is quite enough of itself to betray 
the whereabouts of the great factory lying 
beneath us, of which from this point we have a 
fairly good bird's-eye view. Down the station 
steps, and a few yards up the lane to the left, 
with a playing field on one side, and on the 
other a plantation of fir-trees almost hiding the 
red brick and timbered gables of the office 
buildings, and we have arrived at the factory 
lodge. Looking through the open door down a 



48 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

vista of archways bowered in clematis and 
climbing roses, with an alpine rock garden at 
each side of the broad walk, we might almost 
imagine ourselves to be at the entrance to 
some botanical gardens. But a glance at the 
thousands of check hooks covering the inner 
wall of the lodge informs us that more than 
2,400 girls pass in and out every day. The 
men's lodge is at a separate gate. 

Before entering the works, a few steps further 
along the road will give us some idea of the 
many advantages gained by moving the factory 
out into the country. Just opposite the lodge 
a sloping path leads to the cycle-house, where 
some 200 machines are stored during work 
hours. Beyond this, in the middle of a flower 
garden, stands the Estate Office of the Bourn- 
ville Village Trust, and in the background 
higher up a girls' pavilion can be seen through 
the trees. Behind it stretch asphalt tennis- 
courts and playing-fields, bordered by a belt 
of fine old trees, under whose shade wind 
pretty shrubbery walks lined with rustic seats. 
A passage under the road leads straight from 



A MODEL VILLAGE. 49 

the works into these beautiful grounds, and on 
a summer's day few prettier sights could be 
found than the numbers of white-robed girls 
who stream across in the dinner-hour to revel 
in the sunshine of the open fields, or sit in 
groups beneath the shady trees, enjoying a 
picnic lunch. A little further along the road 
the trees and the rhododendron bushes sweep 
backwards, leaving an open space, where a 
smooth lawn reaches to the front of a fine old 
mansion, for many years used as a home for 
some fifty of the work-girls whose own homes 
are at a distance, or who have no home at all. 
The fruit gardens and vineries belonging to 
" Bournville Hall " are used for the benefit of 
work-people who are ill. 

Turning back again, we find on the other 
side of the road a magnificent pavilion, the 
Coronation gift of the firm to their employees, 
which overlooks the broad level stretch of one 
of the finest cricket grounds in the Midlands. 
Away in the hollow beyond, the Bourn forms 
a picturesque, shady pool, part of which is used 
to make a capital open-air swimming bath for 



50 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

the men. In the rising background are the 
pretty houses and the gardens of the model 
village. Still retracing our steps, we now come 
to the original cottages built by the firm. 
Plainer and less picturesque than.those of more 
modern construction, their air of comfort, and 
the creepers which cover many of their walls, 
make them harmonize well with their surround- 
ings. One of them is now used as a youths' 
club, providing games, a circulating library, and 
reading and lecture rooms. Another contains 
club rooms for the office staff. In passing we 
catch sight of a fine swimming bath for the girls. 
Through the lodge and under the clematis, 
a few steps bring us to the private railway- 
station, which in size would do credit to many 
a town. Here trucks are loaded with finished 
goods and despatched to their various destina- 
tions. Every working day of the year a long 
train, extending often in the busiest season 
to as many as forty truck-loads, steams out of 
this station to scatter the productions of 
Bournville over the face of the Earth. Close 
by the station we turn into the offices, where 




> 
a 

u 
S 
o 

m 



a 

3 



o 



CARE FOR WORK-PEOPLE. 51 

the fittings and general arrangement convey 
an air of refined solidity according well with 
the goods produced. 

Before proceeding to study the manufacture 
of cocoa essence and chocolate from the bean as 
it is imported, it will be interesting to see the 
careful provision that is made for the health 
and cleanliness of the workers, for in connec- 
tion with any food nothing is of greater impor- 
tance than the circumstances attending its 
preparation. A gratuitous sick club is provided 
by the firm for the employees, including the 
services of a doctor and three trained nurses. 
A special retiring room, comfortably furnished, 
is provided for girls needing a quiet hours rest. 

We are taken into the girls' dining-hall, 
capable of seating over two thousand at a time, 
fitted with benches, the backs of which are 
convertible into table tops. The far end of 
the dining-hall leads into the huge kitchen, to 
which the girls can bring their own dinners to 
be cooked, or where they can buy a large variety 
of things at coffee-house prices. Here again 
the health of the workers is carefully studied. 

4—2 



52 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

Fruit is made a speciality, an experienced buyer 
being employed to insure its better supply. A 
private dining-room is provided for the fore- 
women. 

Returning to the dining-hall, we descend a 
flight of steps into the spacious dressing-rooms, 
with vistas of wooden screens, filled on each 
side with numbered hooks. Here every morn- 
ing the thousands of girls not only divest 
themselves of their outer garments, but change 
their dresses for washing frocks of white 
holland. The material for these is provided 
by the firm, free for tbe first, and afterwards 
at less than cost price, and the girls are re- 
quired to start work in a clean frock every 
Monday morning. It will be seen at once how 
this helps them to keep neat and respectable ; 
their strong white washing frocks only being 
soiled by their work, after which they 
change back into their own unstained clothes, 
and turn out looking as great a contrast to 
the usually pictured type of factory girl as 
can be imagined. The fore- women also con- 
form to this arrangement, but wear washing 



THOUGHTFUL PROVISION. 



53 



dresses of blue cotton to distinguish them from 
the girls. Round the. walls of this vast 
dressing-room hot-water pipes are placed, and 
over these are shelves 
where on a rainy day- 
wet boots can be de- 
posited to dry. Specially 
thoughtful is the provi- 
sion of rubber snow-shoes, 
imported from America 
for their use, and sup- 
plied under cost price. 
Beneath each stool, too, 
is a shelf for heavy boots, 
which can be replaced 
in the factory by slippers. 

Mention has already been made of the pro- 
vision for illness or accidents, and of the care 
shown in the many arrangements for main- 
taining and improving the health and physical 
development of the girls. Further evidence 
of this is found in the airy and well-lighted 
work - rooms, from which funnels and ex- 
haust fans collect and carry off all dust, 




54 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

and improve the ventilation, so that in spite 
of the multitudinous operations in progress, 
the whole place is kept as " spick and span " 
as a ship of the line. But another aggres- 
sive sign of the firm's belief in the motto 
mens sana in corpore sano is the presence 
of a lady whose whole time is devoted to 
the physical culture of the girls. Trained in 
Swedish athletics, this lady and her assistant 
undertake the teaching, not only of gymnastics, 
but of swimming and numerous games. Every 
day drill classes are held, an opportunity 
being thus provided for all the younger girls 
to attend a half-hour's lesson twice a week. 

The result of all this thoughtful care is 
abundantly evident in the general air of health 
and comfort which pervades the whole factory, 
and in the bright faces which greet us at every 
turn, as we pass to and fro among the busy 
workers in this monster hive. 

Entering now, and turning into the private 
station, we see thousands of sacks of the 
freshly-imported beans being transferred to 
the neighbouring stores. The new arrivals 



INTERESTING PROCESSES. 55 

must first be sifted and picked over to get rid 
of any that may be unsound, or of any foreign 
material still remaining. This is accomplished 
by a sorting and winnowing machine, which 
delivers by separate shoots the cleaned beans, 
graded according to size, and the dust and 
foreign matter. 

A battery of roasters await the survivors of 
this operation, which are automatically con- 
veyed to the hoppers. High-pressure steam 
supplies the requisite heat without waste or 
smoke, and as the huge drums slowly rotate, 
experienced workmen, on whose judgment 
great reliance is placed, carefully watch their 
contents, and decide when precisely the right 
degree of roasting has been attained to secure 
the richest aroma. Then they are passed 
through a cooling chamber, after which they 
are in condition for " breaking down." 

This consists in cracking the shells of the 
beans, and releasing the kernels or " nibs," from 
which the shells and dust are winnowed by a 
powerful blast. It is accomplished by carrying 
the beans mechanically to the cracking machine 



56 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

at a considerable height, whence husks and 
nibs are allowed to fall before the winnower : 
the separated nibs are assorted according to 
size. Some of the shells find their way to the 
Emerald Isle, to be used by the peasants for 
the weak infusion called " miserables." 

Now comes the important process of grinding, 
performed between horizontal mill-stones, the 
friction of which produces heat and melts the 
11 butter," while it grinds the " nibs " till the 
whole mass flows, solidifying into a brittle cake 
when cold. 

The thick fluid of the consistency of treacle 
flowing from the grinding-mills is poured into 
round metal pots, the top and bottom of which 
are lined with pads of felt, and these are, when 
filled, put under a powerful hydraulic press, 
which extracts a large percentage of the natural 
oil or butter. The pressure is at first light, 
but as soon as the oil begins to flow the 
remaining mass in the press-pot is stiffened 
into the nature of indiarubber, and upon this 
it is safe to place any pressure that is desired. 
As it is not advisable to extract all the 



COCOA ESSENCE. 57 

butter possible, the pressure is regulated to 
give the required result. In the end a firm, 
dry cake is taken from the press, and when 
cool is ground again to the consistency of 
flour ; this is the " cocoa essence " for which the 
firm of Cadbury is so well known in all parts 
of the world.* 

Between cocoa and chocolate there are essen- 
tial differences. Both are made from the cocoa 
nib, but whereas in cocoa the nibs are ground 
separately, and the butter extracted, in choco- 
late sugar and flavourings are added to the 
nib, and all are ground together into a paste, 
the sugar absorbing all the superfluous butter. 
If good quality cocoa is used, the butter con- 
tained in the nib is all that is needful to 
incorporate sugar and nib into one soft choco- 
late paste for grinding and moulding, but in 
the commoner chocolates extra cocoa butter 
has to be added. It is a regrettable fact that 
some unprincipled makers are tempted to use 
cheaper vegetable fats as substitutes for the 
natural butter, but none of these are really 
* For ancient processes see Appendix I., p. 103. 



68 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

palatable or satisfactory in use, and none of 
the leading British firms are guilty of using 
such adulterants, or of the still more objec- 
tionable practice of grinding cocoa-shells and 
mixing them with their common chocolates.* 

Flavouring is introduced according to the 
object in view ; vanilla is largely employed in 
this country, though in France and Spain cinna- 
mon is used, and elsewhere various spices. 
Willoughby, in his "Travels in Spain" (1664), 
writes : 

" To every three and a half pounds of powder they 
add two pounds of sugar, twelve Vanillos, a little 
Guiny pepper (which is used by the Spaniards only), 
and a little Achiotet to give a colour. They melt the 
sugar, and then mingle all together, and work it up 
either in rolls or leaves." 

Another writer says: "The usual proportion at 
Madrid to a hundred kernels of cocoa is to add two 
grains of Chile pepper, a handful of anise, as many 

* "Chocolate is an article so disguised in the manu- 
facture that it is impossible to tell its purity or value. 
The only safeguard is to buy that which bears the name of 
a reputable maker." — Chambers, " Manual of Diet." 

t The heart-leaved bixa, or anotta. 



td 
o 

c 


< 



? 




CHOCOLATE. 59 

flowers — called by the natives vinacaxtlides, or little 
ears — six white roses in powder, a pod of campeche,* 
two drachms of cinnamon, a dozen almonds and as 
many hazel-nuts, with achiote enough to give it a 
reddish tincture ; the sugar and vanilla are mixed at 
discretion, as also the musk and ambergris. They 
frequently work this paste with orange water, which 
they think gives it a greater consistence and firmness." 

When the chocolate is sufficiently ground it 
is put into a stove to attain the correct tem- 
perature, and is then passed on to a moulding- 
table, where it is pressed into tin moulds, and 
shaken till it settles. After passing through a 
refrigerating chamber, the contents of these 
moulds are ready as cakes of hard chocolate for 
putting up in the well-known blue " Mexican/' 
or the dark-red " Milk," packets. 

It would, of course, be interesting to pro- 
ceed to an inspection of the many processes 
involved in making all the dainties that are 
prepared with chocolate, and of the numerous 
trades concerned in the production of packages, 
boxes, and fancy cases, did space permit. 
Room after room might be visited, bright in 
* Log-wood. 



60 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

the daylight, or equally well lighted by elec- 
tricity at night, humming with busy machines ; 
some peopled with girls — among whom only 
men wearing a certain badge on their arms 
are allowed — some with men and boys, but all 
vibrating with a genial air of content as well 
as of busy occupation. Suffice it to say that 
half the handicrafts of the town seem repre- 
sented in this centre of industry, in every 
department of which order and cheerfulness 
reign supreme. Each would require a chapter 
to do it justice, for everything employed in 
packing seems to be made on the premises, 
and that, too, on a system of piece-work paid 
for, not at the lowest possible price, but on 
the basis of securing a satisfactory living wage 
to the average worker. No wonder the faces 
around are bright, no wonder that openings at 
the Bournville factory are in demand, and that 
long service for the firm is the boast of so many 
of the employees. Among these, a little band 
of about thirty still upholds the traditions of 
the old firm that laid the foundations of the 
present company in the city of Birmingham. 



S3 

! 

CO 

§ 

I 




WORK AND PLAY. 61 

The work hours are forty-eight each week, 
and the wages depend both on age and length 
of service, no man of twenty-three years of age 
and over twelve months' service receiving less 
than 24s. weekly. There are no deductions for 
sick club or fines, the sick fund, as before 
stated, being a free gift from the company. 
Offences and late time are entered in a record 
book, and an opportunity is given to wipe off 
all past records by two years' good service. 
The Athletic Club, with over 500 voluntary 
subscribers, runs three cricket, four football, 
and two hockey teams, besides bowling, tennis, 
swimming, and other sports. One of the most 
interesting events of the Cricket Club is the 
annual match with a team representing Messrs. 
Fry and Sons, of Bristol, the oldest established 
cocoa firm in this country. In friendly opposi- 
tion to the " Bournville Club " are the teams 
drawn from the " Youths' Club," and other out- 
side organizations. A summer camp of over a 
hundred boys has been successfully held at the 
seaside for some years past. 

The recent introduction of the system of 



62 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS.* 




suggestion-boxes throughout the works has 
been a great success. All employees are invited 
to make suggestions, which are dealt with each 
week by two committees, one for the men and 
one for the girls. Prizes amounting to about 
£80 are offered every half-year for the best 
suggestions. During the first seven months 
of operation over 1,000 suggestions were re- 
ceived, a very large percentage of which were 
found sufficiently useful to be adopted. The 
result has been to draw all sections closer 




ri 



6 



ENCOURAGING THRIFT. 68 

together, as each feels sure of getting due credit 
for original ideas. Many important alterations 
in organization and methods of working have 
been carried into effect, entirely owing to this 
scheme.* 

In order to encourage thrift (at the same 
time insuring privacy), a Savings Fund on a 
novel system has been working successfully for 
several years at Bournville. The fund was 
opened in Jubilee year by gifts of £1 to each 
employee who had been three years in the 
service of the firm, and 10s. to those employed 
for a shorter time. Deposits are received, and 
amounts withdrawn in the usual way during 
the year, through collectors in each department, 
the depositors' cards being called in quarterly 
for audit. At the end of each financial year, in 
May, interest at the rate of four per cent, is 
added to the amount standing to the credit of 
each depositor, and the whole amount paid over 
to the Post Office Savings Bank. At this time 
also, Post Office officials attend at the works, 

* The regulations adopted are so interesting that a place 
has been found for them in an Appendix (p. 106). 



64 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

and enter the amounts to the credit of each 
depositor, issuing new Post Office Savings hooks 
where necessary. This system secures absolute 
privacy for the permanent savings, and places 
the fund upon a secure basis. As some evi- 
dence that the scheme is appreciated, it may be 
stated that the total balance transferred to the 
Post Office Savings Bank has averaged over 
£3,200 per annum. 

While in the district of Bournville, the oppor- 
tunity must not be lost of becoming more 
closely acquainted with the village around the 
works. Away beyond the factory stretches an 
estate of nearly 500 acres, set apart for the pur- 
pose of " alleviating the evils which arise from 
the insanitary and insufficient accommodation 
supplied to large numbers of the working 
classes, and of securing to workers in factories 
some of the advantages of outdoor village life, 
with opportunities for the natural and health- 
ful occupation of cultivating the soil." As yet 
only some 450 houses have been erected, pretty, 
picturesque cottages all of them, for the most 
part semi-detached, each on its sixth of an acre, 



3 

? 

V 

c 

5 




THE BOURNVILLE VILLAGE TRUST. 65 

more or less, housing in all a population of 
about 2,000. 

It was compassion for the ill-housed work- 
people of Birmingham that led Mr. George 
Cadbury, the founder of the village, to undertake 
so splendid a task, and having accomplished 
it, he crowned it by making a gift of the whole 
to the nation, placing its administration in the 
hands of a Trust. In doing so he laid down 
ideal stipulations for its development, and for 
the regulation of the villages which may in the 
future be built out of the income of the Trust. 
The principal of these are that factories or 
workshops shall never occupy more than one 
fifteenth of the area ; that no house shall occupy 
more than one-fourth of the ground allotted to 
it; that in addition to wide roads and the 
ample gardens thus secured, one-tenth of the 
area shall be reserved for public open spaces for 
ever, parts of which are to be used as children's 
playgrounds. At present no intoxicants are sold 
or prepared on the estate, and if ever the trustees 
should see fit to permit this, it is to be as a 
co-operative undertaking, the profits of which 

5 



66 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

shall " be devoted to securing for the village 
community recreation and counter-attraction to 
the liquor trade as ordinarily conducted." 

Such a scheme affords a model for public 
bodies tackling the housing problem in earnest, 
and is fraught with great hopes for the future. 
The annual income, nearly £6,000, is to be ap- 
plied first to the development of this estate, 
and subsequently to the purchase of estates 
near Birmingham or other large towns, and the 
establishment of new villages thereon. A most 
important feature is, that although the rents 
are calculated to yield a fair return on the cost, 
including a proportion of development expenses, 
they are so low that a five-roomed cottage with 
bath and every convenience can be had for the 
rent of a two-roomed hovel in the slums. About 
two-fifths of the householders find employment 
in the cocoa works, the rest in the adjoining 
villages or in Birmingham. 

The gardens are a special feature, and before 
the houses are let, they are laid out by the 
Trust, and planted with fruit trees. All are 
well worked, and an average yield in vegetables 




m 



to 

a 



"3 






VILLAGE LIFE. 67 

and fruit of nearly two shillings a week has 
been found possible, equivalent to something 
like £60 an acre — more than twelve times as 
much food as would be produced if under 
pasturage. Two professional gardeners, with 
several men under them, are employed to look 
after the gardening department, and they are 
always ready to give any information or advice 
required by the tenants, so that the cottage 
gardens may be cultivated to the utmost 
profit. At present the public buildings consist 
of a village inn and baths ; a school is shortly 
to be erected. Building is being steadily pro- 
ceeded with, and although the development of 
the estate may be somewhat slow at first, it 
will advance with growing rapidity as the 
revenue increases. No wonder that there is an 
omnipresent air of comfort and prosperity, or 
that the death-rate is only about eight per 
thousand, in comparison with nineteen in the 
neighbouring city. 

No description of Bournville would be com- 
plete without a mention of its picturesque 
alms-houses. Here a haven of rest is provided 

5—2 



68 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

for some of those who, in their best years, have 
rendered faithful service to the firm. Thirty- 
three independent houses, brick and stone built, 
each with its own doorway to the quiet green- 
sward, and its windows to the sun, form an 
inviting, reposeful quadrangle. They were the 
last gift of a life devoted to the interests of 
others, and the happiness and peace which 
characterize them are fitting memorials of the 
late Richard Cadbury, the elder of the two 
brothers who founded this great industry, and 
who have in their lives been favoured to see 
such untold blessing upon their labours. 



<©' 



• " 



SECTION OF A CHOCOLATE FACTORY. 

The accompanying diagram of a chocolate factory is reproduced by 
kind permission of the Berlin publishers of Dr. Paul Zipperer's well- 
known work on "The Manufacture of Chocolate," which contains 
much valuable information. The machinery described is that of 
Messrs. Lehmann, of Dresden, one of the largest makers on the 
Continent. 

By means of the lift (1) all the raw materials, sugar, 
cocoa, packing, etc., are carried up to the store-rooms (2). 
Here are the machines for cleansing and picking the raw 
cocoa-beans, which are fed into the elevator boxes (3) above 
the cleansing machine (4), which frees them from dust ; they 
then pass to the continuous band (5) on which they are 
picked over, and from which they fall into movable boxes (6). 
They are thence transferred to the hoppers (7), and fed by 
opening a slide in the hopper, into the roasting machine (8). 
The quantity contained in the hoppers is sufficient to charge 
the roasting machine. When the roasting is completed the 
cocoa is emptied into trucks (9), and carried to the exhaust 
arrangement (10), where the beans are cooled down, the 
vapour given off passing out into the open air. At the 
same time the air of the roasting chamber is sucked out 
through the funnel-shaped tube fitted to the cover. The 
roasted cocoa is then passed to boxes (11), to be con- 

[69] 



70 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

veyed by the elevator to the crushing and cleansing 
machine (12). After being cleansed, the cocoa is carried 
in trucks (13) to hoppers (14) by which it is fed into 
the mills (15) on the lower floor. The sugar mill and 
sifting apparatus (26) placed near the crushing and cleansing 
machines are also fed by a hopper from above. Cocoa and 
sugar are now supplied to the mixing machine (16), to be 
worked together before passing to the rolls (17) by which 
the final grinding is effected. After passing once or more 
through the mill, the finished chocolate mass is taken 
to the hot-room (18), where it remains in boxes until 
further treated, after which it is taken to the moulding- 
room. In the mixer (19) the mass acquires the consistency 
and temperature requisite for moulding. The mass is then 
taken in lumps to the dividing machine (20), and cut into 
pieces of the desired size and weight. On the table (21) 
the moulds, lying upon boards, are filled with chocolate 
and then taken to the shaking-table (22). By means of a 
double lift (23) the moulded chocolate, still lying upon 
boards, is conveyed to the cooling-room or cellar, in which 
there are benches or frames (24) for receiving the moulds 
as they are. slipped off the boards. The cellar has to be 
cooled artificially, according to situation. Adjoining the 
cellar is the wrapping-room (25), and further on the ware- 
house. The goods so far finished are then taken by the 
lift (1) to the rooms where they are packed for delivery. 



THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



IV. ITS HISTORY. 



ALTHOUGH now 
-£j- cultivated in 
many other tropical 
countries, the cacao 
tree is one of the 
New Worlds rich 
gifts, first made 
known to our ances- 
tors by the 
venturesome 
Spaniards, who 
probably be- 
^FromJhtftmr. came acquaint- 

OLD DRAWING OF AN AMERICAN INDIAN, ed with itS Cul" 
WITH CHOCOLATE-POT AND WHISK. ...» i 

tivation early 
in the sixteenth century, and spread the know- 
ledge derived from the Mexicans and the 

[71] 




72 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

inhabitants of Central America to their other 
colonies. They found cacao a more veritable 
mine of wealth than even the gold, of which 
they procured such store. It is indeed a curious 
coincidence that in those countries of gold the 
cacao-beans were not only the form in which 
tribute was paid, but themselves passed as 
currency. On account of their use for this 
purpose by the Mexicans, Peter Martyr styled 
them amygdala pecuniarice — u pecuniary al- 
monds " — exclaiming : " Blessed money, which 
exempts its possessors from avarice, since it 
cannot be hoarded or hidden underground !" 

Joseph Acosta tells us that "the Indians 
used no gold nor silver to trafficke in or buy 
withall . . . and unto this day (1604) the 
custom continues amongst the Indians, as in 
the province of Mexico, instede of money they 
use cacao." The Aztecs also made use of cacao 
in this way, as many as 8,000 beans being legal 
tender — rather a task, one would imagine, for 
the money-changers. 

In Nicaragua this practice was so general 
that " none but the rich and noble could afford 



A PRECIOUS COMMODITY. 78 

to drink it, as it was literally drinking money." 
A rabbit sold there for ten beans, " a tolerably 
good slave " for a hundred. Slaves must, how- 
ever, have been at a discount just then, if the 
silver value of the beans was no greater than 
when Thomas Candish wrote in 1586 : "These 
cacaos serve amongst them both for meat and 
money ... 150 of them being as good as a 
Real of Plate "—about 6d. "A bag," of un- 
known size, " was worth ten crowns." One of 
the storehouses of Montezuma, the last of the 
old independent Mexican Chieftains,* was found 
by the Spaniards to contain as much as 40,000 
loads of this precious commodity, in wicker 
baskets which six men could not grasp. 

John Ogilby, writing in 1671 of the produce 
of America, says : 

"But much more beneficial is the cacao, with 
which Fruit New Spain drives a great Trade; nay, 
serves for Coin'd Money. When they deliver a Parcel 
of Cacao, they tell them by five, thirty, and a hundred. 
Their Charity to the Poor never exceeds above one 
Cacao-nut. The chief Reason for which this Fruit is 
so highly esteem'd, is for the Chocolate, which is 

* Not an "Emperor," as reported by his conquerors. 



74 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

made of the same, without which the Inhabitants 
(being so us'd to it) are not able to live. Before the 
Spaniards made themselves Masters of Mexico, no 
other Drink was esteem'd but that of the Cacao ; none 
caring for Wine, notwithstanding the Soil produces 
Vines everywhere in great Abundance of itself." 

From contemporary travellers' records are to 
be gleaned many such strange facts and stranger 
fancies regarding the precious bean and its 
products, some of them extremely quaint and 
curious. Bancroft, for instance, writing of the 
Maya races of the Pacific, tells us that " before 
planting the seed they held a festival in honour 
of their gods, Ekchuah, Chac, and Hobnil, who 
were their patron deities. To solemnize it, 
they all went to the plantation of one of their 
number, where they sacrificed a dog having a 
spot on its skin the colour of cacao. They 
burned incense to their idols, after which they 
gave to each of the officials a branch of the 
cacao plant." Palacio also tells us that u the 
Pipiles, before beginning to plant, gathered all 
seeds in small bowls, after performing certain 
rites with them before the idol, among which 



SUPERSTITIOUS PRACTICES. 



75 



was the drawing of blood from different parts 
of the body with which to anoint the idol ;" 
and, as Ximinez states, " the blood of slain fowls 
was sprinkled over the land to be sown." 




[From Bontekoe. 



A CACAO PLANTATION. 



(One of the earliest illustrations of this subject known, showing the 
shade trees, and beans drying.) 

The idea that secret rites were necessary at 
the planting of cacao to counteract their ignor- 
ance of its requirements was long current also 
among the superstitious Spaniards, who simi- 
larly accounted for the early failures of the 
English, as witness the following amusing ex- 



76 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

tract from a contribution to the Harleian 
Miscellany in 1690 : 

" Cocoa is now a commodity to be regarded in our 
colonies, though at first it was the principal invitation 
to the peopling of Jamaica, for those walks the 
Spaniards left behind them there, when we conquered 
it, produced such prodigious profit with so little 
trouble that Sir Thomas Modiford and several others 
set up their rests to grow wealthy therein, and fell to 
planting much of it, which the Spanish slaves had 
always foretold would never thrive, and so it hap- 
pened : for, though it promised fair and throve finely 
for five or six years, yet still at that age, when so 
long hopes and cares had been wasted upon it, 
withered and died away by some unaccountable 
cause, though they imputed it to a black worm or 
grub, which they found clinging to its roots. . . . 
And did it not almost constantly die before, it would 
come into perfection in fifteen years' growth and last 
till thirty, thereby becoming the most profitable tree 
in the world, there having been £200 sterling made 
in one year of an acre of it. But the old trees, being 
gone by age and few new thriving, as the Spanish 
negroes foretold, little or none now is produced worthy 
the care and pains in planting and expecting it. 
Those slaves gave a superstitious reason for its not 




5 o 









SECRET RITES. 77 

thriving, many religious rites being performed at its 
planting by the Spaniards, which their slaves were 
not permitted to see. But it is probable that, where 
a nation as they removed the art of making cochineal 
and curing vanilloes into their inland provinces, which 
were the commodities of those islands in the Indians' 
time, and forbade the opening of any mines in them 
for fear some maritime nation might be invited to the 
conquering of them, so they might, likewise, in their 
transplanting cocoa from the Caracas and Guatemala, 
conceal wilfully some secret in its planting from their 
slaves, lest it might teach them to set up for them- 
selves by being able to produce a commodity of such 
excellent use for the support of man's life, with which 
alone and water some persons have been necessitated 
to live ten weeks together, without finding the least 
diminution of health or strength." 

However valuable this last quality rendered 
the newly-discovered drink, its method of pre- 
paration and the unwonted spices employed 
prevented its ready adoption abroad, although 
the Spaniards and Portuguese took to it more 
kindly than some of the northern races. Joseph 
Acosta, writing of Mexico and Peru, says : 

" The cocoa is a fruite little less than almonds, yet 



78 " THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

more fatte, the which being roasted hath no ill taste. 
It is so much esteemed among the Indians (yea, 
among the Spaniards), that it is one of the richest 
and the greatest traffickes of New Spain. The chief 
use of this cocoa is in a drincke which they call 
chocholat^, whereof they make great account, foolishly 
and without reason: for it is loathsome to such as 




MEXICAN DRINKING-VESSELS, ROLLING-PIN AND WHISK. 

are not acquainted with it, having a skumme or frothe 
that is very unpleasant to taste, if they be not well 
conceited thereof. Yet it is a drincke very much 
esteemed among the Indians, whereof they feast 
noble men as they passe through their country. The 
Spaniards, both men and women, that are accustomed 
to the country, are very greedy of this chocholat6. 
They say they make diverse sortes of it, some hote, 
some colde, and put therein much of that chili : yea, 
they make paste thereof, the which they say is good 
for the stomacke, and against the catarre." 



CURIOUS PREJUDICES. 79 

But this was not the only medicinal property 
attributed to " the food of the gods," for the 
Aztecs used to prescribe as a cure for diarrhoea 
and dysentery a potion prepared of cacao 
mixed with the ground bones of their giant 
ancestors, exhumed in the mountains. Such 
a very active principle was sure to make its 
enemies too, and several amusing attacks have 
survived to witness their own refutation. It 
was regarded by some as a violent inflamer of 
the passions, which should be prohibited to the 
monks ; for, as one writer puts it, " if such an 
interdiction had existed, the scandal with which 
that holy order has been branded might have 
proved groundless." As late as 1712, after its 
use had become established in this country, the 
mentor of the Spectator writes : " I shall also 
advise my fair readers to be in a particular 
manner careful how they meddle with romances, 
chocolates, novels, and the like inflamers, which 
I look upon as very dangerous to be made use 
of during this great carnival " (the month of 
May). 

Some accounted for the assumed ill-effects of 



80 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

cocoa to its admixture with sugar in the form 
of chocolate, for a few years earlier a London 
doctor had declared that " coffee, chocolate, and 
tea were at the first used only as medicines 
while they continued unpleasant, but since 
they were made delicious with sugar they are 
become poison." Similarly, an anonymous 
assailant in a pamphlet " Printed at the Black 
Boy, over against St. Dunstan's Church, in 
Fleet Street," exclaims : 

" As for the great quantity of sugar which is com- 
monly put in, it may destroy the native and genuine 
temper of the chocolate, sugar being such a corrosive 
salt, and such an hypocritical enemy of the body. 
Simeon Pauli (a learned Dane) thinks sugar to be one 
cause of our English consumption, and Dr. Willis 
blames it as one of our universal scurvies : therefore, 
when chocolate produces any ill effects, they may be 
often imputed to the great superfluity of its sugar." 

In the New World fewer questions were 
raised, and the only conscientious objection 
appears to have been felt by a Bishop of Chiapa, 
whose performance of the Mass was disturbed 




Cacao Tree, Trinidad, 



AN AMUSING EPISODE. 81 

by its use. The story is told in Gaze's " New 
Survey of the West Indies/' published in 1648, 
and is worth repetition. It is well to bear in 
mind his information that " two or three hours 
after a good meal of three or four dishes of 
mutton, veal or beef, kid, turkeys or other 
fowles, our stomackes would bee ready to faint, 
and so wee were fain to support them with a 
cup of chocolatte." 

" The women of that city, it seems, pretend much 
weakness and squeamishness of stomacke, which they 
say is so great that they are not able to continue in 
church while the mass is briefly hurried over, much 
lesse while a solemn high mass is sung and a sermon 
preached, unles they drinke a cup of hot chocolatte 
and eat a bit of sweetmeats to strengthen their 
stomackes. For this purpose it was much used by 
them to make their maids bring them to church, in 
the middle of mass or sermon, a cup of chocolatte, 
which could not be done to all without a great con- 
fusion and interrupting both mass and sermon. The 
Bishop, perceiving this abuse, and having given faire 
warning for the omitting of it, but all without amend- 
ment, thought fit to fix in writing upon the church 
dores an excommunication against all such as should 

6 



82 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

presume at the time of service to eate or drinke 
within the church. This excommunication was taken 
by all, but especially by the gentlewomen, much to 
heart, who protested, if they might not eate or drinke 
in the church, they could not continue in it to hear 
what otherwise they were bound unto. But none of 
these reasons would move the Bishop. The women, 
seeing him so hard to be entreated, began to slight 
him with scornefull and reproachfall words: others 
slighted his excommunication, drinking in iniquity in 
the church, as the fish doth water, which caused one 
day such an uproar in the Cathedrall that many 
swordes were drawn against the Priests, who attempted 
to take away from the maids the cups of chocolatte 
which they brought unto their mistresses, who at last, 
seeing that neither faire nor foule means would 
prevail with the Bishop, resolved to forsake the 
Cathedrall: and so from that time most of the city 
betooke themselves to the Cloister Churches, where 
by the Nuns and Fryers they were not troubled. . . . 
"The Bishop fell dangerously sick. Physicians 
were sent for far and neere, who all with a joynt 
opinion agreed that the Bishop was poisoned. A 
gentlewoman, with whom I was well acquainted, was 
commonly censured to have prescribed such a cup 
of chocolatte to be ministered by the Page, which 
poisoned him who so rigorously had forbidden 



INTRODUCTION INTO EUROPE. 83 

chocolatte to be drunk in the church. Myself heard 
this gentlewoman say that the women had no reason 
to grieve for him, and that she judged, he being such 
an enemy to chocolatte in the Church, that which he 
had drunk in his house had not agreed with his body. 
And it became afterwards a Proverbe in that country : 
' Beware of the chocolatte of Chiapa!' . . . that 
poisoning and wicked city, which truly deserves no 
better relation than what I have given of the simple 
Dons and the chocolatte-confectioning DofLas." 

It was only natural that the nuns and 
friars of the cloister churches 
should raise no objection to 
this practice of chocolate drink- 
ing, for we read further that 
two of these cloisters were 
" talked off far and near, not for 
their religious practices, but for 
their skill in making drinkes 
which are used in those parts, 
the one called chocolatte, another 
atolle. Chocolatte is (also) made 
up in boxes, and sent not only to 
Mexico, but much of it yearly 

. t • , n • »> {Brought home by 

transported into Spain. the author.) 

6—2 




MODERN MEXICAN 

COCOA WHISK WITH 

LOOSE RINGS. 



84 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

The introduction of cocoa into Europe, indeed, 
as well as its cultivation for the European 
market, is due rather to the Jesuit missionaries 
than to the explorers of the Western Hemisphere. 
It was the monks, too, who about 1661 made it 
known in France. It is curious, therefore, to 
notice the contest that at one time raged among 
ecclesiastics as to whether it was lawful to make 
use of chocolate in Lent ; whether it was to be 
regarded as food or drink. A consensus of 
opinion on the subject, published in Venice in 
1748, states that 

"Among the first Probabilist Theologians who 
undertook to write entire Treatises and to collect all 
the possible reasons as to whether the Indian beverage 
(chocolate) could agree with European fasting, was 
Father Tommaso Hurtado. He employed the whole 
of the Tenth Treatise of the second volume of the 
* Moral Resolutions/ printed in 1651, and added 
thereto an Appendix of more chapters. 

" Father Diana found reason for acquitting the con- 
sciences of those who, in time of fasting, should drink 
chocolate. Father Hurtado, more courageous withal, 
and more benign than* Diana, does not speak of this 
treatise in order to investigate the law ; the nature of 



A CONSCIENTIOUS DILEMMA. 85 

fasting admits drinking without eating. Therefore 
consumers are, without the help of casuists, troubled 
themselves and afflicted, when in Lent they empty 
chocolate cups. Excited on the one hand by the 
pungent cravings of the throat to moisten it, reproved 
on the other by breaking their fast, they experience 
grave remorse of conscience; and, with consciences 
agitated and torn with drinking the sweet beverage, 
they sin. Under the guidance of these skilful 
theologians, the remorse aroused by natural and 
Divine light being blunted, Christians drink joyfully. 
For all agree that he will break his fast who eats any 
portion of chocolate, which, dissolved and well mixed 
with warm water, is not prejudicial to keeping a fast. 
This is a sufficiently marvellous presupposition. He 
who eats 4 ozs. of exquisite sturgeon roasted has 
broken his fast ; if he has it dissolved and prepared 
in an extract of thick broth, he does not sin." 

As for the introduction of cocoa into this 
country, the contemporary Gaze tells us that 

" Our English and Hollanders make little use of it 
when they take a prize at sea, as, not knowing the 
secret virtue and quality of it for the good of the 
stomach, of whom I have heard the Spaniards say, 
when we have taken a good prize, a ship laden 



86 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

with cocoa, in anger and wrath we have hurled over- 
board this good commodity, not regarding the worth 
of it." 

About the time of the Commonwealth, how- 
ever, the new drink began to make its way 
among the English, and the Public Advertiser 
of 1657 contains the notice that " in Bishopsgate 
Street, in Queen's Head Alley, at a Frenchman's 
house, is an excellent West India drink, called 
chocolate, to be sold, where you may have it 
ready at any time, and also unmade, at reason- 
able rates." These rates appear to have been 
from 10s. to 15s. a pound, a price which made 
chocolate, rather than coffee, the beverage of 
the aristocracy, who flocked to the chocolate- 
houses soon to spring up in the fashionable 
centres. Here, records a Spanish visitor to 
London, were to be found such members of the 
polite world as were not at the same time 
members of either House. The chocolate-houses 
were thus the forerunners of our modern clubs, 
and one of them, " The Cocoa Tree," early the 
headquarters of the Jacobite party, became 
subsequently recognised as the club of the 




Whites-Club, on the left of St. James's Palace. 
(From a Drawing of the time of Queen Anne.) 



EARLY PRICES. 87 

literati, including among its members such men 
as Garrick and Byron. White's Cocoa House, 
adjoining St. James' Palace, was even better 
known, eventually developing into the respect- 
able White's Club, though at one time a great 
gambling centre.* 

A little later the " Indian Nectar," recom- 
mended by a learned doctor on account of " its 
secret virtue," was to be obtained of " an honest 
though poor man " in East Smithfield at 6s. 8d. 
a pound, or the " commoner sort at about half 
the price," so that it was getting within more 
general reach. Subsequently the following 
advertisement appeared regarding a patented 
preparation of cocoa " now sold at 4s. 9d. per 
pound." 

" N.B. — The curious may be supplied with this 
superfine chocolate, that exceeds the finest sold 
by other makers, plain at 6s., with vanillos 
at 7s. To be sold for ready money only at 
Mr. Churchman's Chocolate Warehouse, at Mr. 
John Young's, in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 
a.d. 1732." 

* See Appendix III. 



88 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

The opportunities of increasing the revenue 
from the growing favourite Were not lost sight 
of, and till 1820 its spread was checked by. a 
duty of Is. 6d. a pound, collected by the sale of 
stamped wrappers for each pound, half-pound, 
or quarter-pound, " neither more nor less," just 
as in the case of patent medicines at present. 

In the reign of George III. the duty on 
colonial cocoa was raised to Is. lOd. a pound, 
that on such as the East India Company im- 
ported to 2s., and that on all other sources of 
supply to 3s. In the early years of the last 
century the cocoa imported from any country 
not a British possession was charged no less 
than 5s. lOd. a pound as excise, with an extra 
Custom's duty of from 2^d. to 4|d. on entry 
for home consumption. This restrictive tariff 
was by degrees relaxed, but it is only since 
1853 that the duty has been reduced to 2d. a 
pound on the manufactured article, or Id. a 
pound on the raw material. 

While the heavy duties were in force, all 
houses in which the manufacture or sale of 
cocoa was carried on were compelled to have 



REVENUE SCHEMES. 89 

the fact stated over their doors, under penalty 
of £200 from the dealer having more than six 
pounds in his possession (who had to be licensed), 
and £100 from the customer encouraging the 
illicit trade. No less than £500 as fine and 
twelve months in the county gaol were inflicted 
for counterfeiting the stamp or selling chocolate 
without a stamp. To prevent evasion by selling 
the drink ready made, it was enacted under 
George I., whose physicians were extolling its 
medicinal virtues, that 

" Notice shall be given by those who make choco- 
late for private families, and not for sale, three days 
before it is begun to be made, specifying the quantity, 
etc., and within three days after it is finished the 
person for whom it is made shall enter the whole 
quantity on oath, and have it duly stamped." 

Nothing is more eloquent of the growing 
favour in which cocoa is held in this country, 
as its real value becomes more generally appre- 
ciated, than the remarkable progressive increase 
of the quantities imported during recent years, 
as will be seen from the table appended. These 



90 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



quantities doubled between 1880 and 1890, 
and have since more than doubled again. 



TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITIES OF 
CACAO CLEARED FOR HOME CONSUMP- 
TION SINCE 1880. 





lba. 




H*. 


1880 


.. 10,556,159 


1892 


20,797,283 


1881 


10,897,795 


1893 


20,874,995 


1882 


11,996,853 


1894 .. 


. 22,441,048 


1883 


12,868,170 


1895 


24,484,502 


1884 


.. 13,976,891 


1896 


. 24,523,428 


1885 


.. 14,595,168 


1897 


. 27,852,152 


1886 


.. 16,165,714 


1898 


.. 32,087,084 


1887 


.. 15,873,698 


1899 


. 34,013,812 


1888 


18,227,017 


1900 


.. 37,829,326 


1889 


18,464,164 


1901 


42,353,724 


1890 


... 20,224,175 


1902 


45,643,784 


1891 


... 21,599,860 







•t 



# 



PR 



CHART 
NCIPAL 



<• 



AYAQU1L 46.640.000< 



1CA 



36,720,000' 



BAH 1 A 



32M0.O0O 



TRINIDAD 



30,58 5,0001 



VENEZU ELA J 20,160,0 O 



SAN DOM INGO 1 20,000,000 



12,800,000 

11,050,000 

9,802,000 
5,800,000 

8,000,0 00 



GRENAD A ] 
PARA ^ 



<J I 



A. 



.,.**> 



CEYLON 




« 



THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



V. ITS SOURCES AND VARIETIES. 




GUAYAQUIL, in the 
republic of Ecuador, 
on the west coast of 
South America, pro- 
duces the largest out- 
put in the world. This 
cacao has a bold bean 
and a fine flavour, and 
is rich in theobromine ; it is much valued on 
the market, and its strength and character 
render it indispensable to the manufacturer. 

The neighbouring countries of Columbia and 
Venezuela, facing the Caribbean Sea, have for 
centuries grown cacao of excellent quality. 
The criollo (creole) bean is generally used as 
seed, and for it high prices are obtained. 
Owing, however, to the unsettled state of 
[91] 



92 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS.* 

the republics and their unstable governments, 
its cultivation has gone back rather than 
forward during the past decade. With better 
administration and settled peace, great de- 
velopments might easily be achieved. The 
British Royal Mail Steam Packet Company 
provides a good fortnightly service to England. 

In early times the Jesuit missionaries en- 
couraged the natives to form small plantations 
on the borders of the river Orinoco, and Father 
Gumilla, in his " History of the Orinoco/' says : 
" I have seen in these plains forests of wild 
cacao-trees, laden with bunches of pods, supply- 
ing food to an infinite multitude of monkeys, 
squirrels, parrots, and other animals." 

The name of " Soconosco " cocoa is still a 
guarantee of excellent quality. This district 
in Guatemala was in bygone days so noted for 
its cacao that the whole crop was monopolized 
for the use of the Spanish Court. In Central 
America, as in other countries, the Spaniards 
gathered more solid riches from the cacao than 
from the gold mines they hoped to discover. 

British and Dutch Guiana produced but little 



SOUTH AMERICAN SUPPLY. 93 

cacao as long as sugar realized high prices, but 
in comparatively recent years it has been more 
extensively planted, and the crops from the 
lowlands at the mouths of the great South 
American rivers have been very heavy. 

In French Guiana cacao was scarcely culti- 
vated until about 1734, when a forest of it was 
discovered on a branch of the Yari, which flows 
into the Amazon. From this forest seeds were 
gathered, and plantations were laid out in 
Cayenne. 

The cacao of Pard in Brazil differs from all 
other growths ; the bean is much smaller and 
rounder, and is elongated, but when well cured 
it is mild, and has a very pleasant flavour, 
highly valued by manufacturers. Bahia pro- 
duces large quantities of cacao, formerly of an 
inferior quality, owing to careless cultivation 
and indiscriminate mixing of all that was 
brought from the interior, some of it wild and 
uncured. But now this state of things is being 
improved, and the good quality of "fermented " 
Bahian cacao is fully recognised. 

A little cacao is grown in the low-lying parts 



94 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

of Rio Janeiro, but it is not to be met with 
farther south than this. The part of Florida 
which borders the Gulf of Mexico and the 
southern part of Louisiana mark the northerly- 
limit of its natural growth.* A traveller in 
Louisiana in 1796 speaks of the cacao-tree 
among others as *" covering with delightful 
shade the shores of the Mississippi," and on 
the banks of the Alatamaha in Georgia, but it 
is not cultivated so far north. 

At the present day the West India Islands 
rival the South American Continent in providing 
cocoa from the New World. Trinidad has for 
more than a century deservedly claimed to be 
the first of these cocoa-producing islands. As 
far back as the sixteenth century the Spaniards 
who first colonized the island were interested 
in the cultivation of cacao. In the year 1780 
a French gentleman residing in the neigh- 
bouring island of Grenada visited Trinidad, and 
gave such a glowing account of its fertility 

* Florida even boasts a town of the name of Cocoa, 
but inquiries on the spot have failed to discover that any 
attempt was ever made to cultivate the plant there. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



CARIBBEA 




ChaijacihaoftJre 




GfiLS 



MAP OF 



TRINIDAD" 



ilia 



Statute- Mile* 



P S 



Latitude IT N ZorLoiutde-^ 15' W, 
- .— ^ Raihtag-s — — — Routed 



GULF 

PARI A 






P^ ffliApU 



pv e+&w* 




tyaro 



QtOeotct PT 



WEST INDIAN SUPPLY. 95 

that agriculturists from France and elsewhere 
flocked to the colony, and ever since this date 
it has maintained a high standard of agricul- 
tural advance. The names of the cacao estates 
at the present day are nearly all Spanish or 
French, and throughout the British occupa- 
tion of more than a hundred years the old 
families have in many cases held the same 
lands.* 

The oldest estates in the island lie in the 
northern valleys of Santz Cruz, Maracas, and 
Arima ; but cultivation has been considerably 
extended in the Montserrat and Naparima 
districts, and more recently in almost every 
part of the island reached by the extension 
of the railway and the coasting steamboat. 
The Trinidad bean is the largest and finest 
flavoured, and commands a higher price on the 
market than any other from the West Indies. 

Next in importance to Trinidad is the little 

* Two of the coloured plates in this volume are repro- 
ductions of pictures by members of one of the oldest 
French families in the island, painted on their cocoa estate 
in the beautiful valley of Santa Cruz. 



96 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS.* 



island of Grenada ; here cacao is the staple 
industry, the sugar estates that once lined the 
shores having entirely disappeared. Grenada 
cacao is smaller than that of Trinidad, possibly 




on account of the different method ot planting 
described in a previous chapter, but the flavour 
of the bean is exceedingly good and regular, 
and the crop is bought up eagerly on the 
British and American markets. The other 
West Indian islands producing cocoa are 



> 
'3 
n 

o 

ft» 
o 

W 

? 

ft> 
a. 

r 

5 




AFRICAN SUPPLY. 97 

Jamaica and Dominica, where its cultivation is 
reviving ; also St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Tobago, 
and Montserrat, each of which have a few 
plantations ; those in St. Vincent suffered 
severely by the recent hurricane. The French 
islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique supply 
exclusively to the port of Havre ; the cocoa 
from San Domingo is of a somewhat inferior 
quality. Cuba will probably considerably ex- 
tend its output under American rule. 

In the Eastern Hemisphere by far the largest 
supplies come from the small islands of St. Thom3 
and Principe, in the Gulf 
of Guinea, belonging to the 
Portuguese. These have in 
recent years proved especially 
adapted for the growth of the 
cacao, and the exports, espe- 
cially from the island of St. 
Thorn^, are very large ; most 
of the crop finds its way to European markets, 
transhipping at Lisbon. There is little cacao 
grown in the mainland African colonies, though 
the German Government offers special induce- 




98 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



ments in the Kameruns ; no British African 
colony grows it to any extent. Fernando Po 
sends supplies to Spain, and occasionally on the 




PUU CULTIVATION flCW CULTIVATION MOUNTAIN HFORCST 



London market strange packages made of rough 
cowhide stitched with leather thongs are seen, 
containing beans from Madagascar. 



ASIATIC SUPPLY 



99 



Further east are the plantations of Ceylon. 
In the hill districts, of which Matale is the 







centre, are many estates, some in joint culti- 
vation of tea and cocoa. The output from this 
colony is at the present time nearly stationary. 

7—2 



100 



"THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 



The Dutch East Indian produce is almost 
exclusively shipped to Amsterdam. 

In the preceding pages extracts have fre- 
quently been culled from writers of the past : 
in the literature of the present day Charles 
Kingsleys graphic account of Trinidad and its 
cacao and sugar plantations in " At Last " 




should be read in extenso. Another very 
interesting episode of modern date is the 
introduction of the cacao into the Samoan 
Islands in the Pacific by Eobert Louis Steven- 
son. Writing to Sidney Colvin, on December 7, 
1891, in one of his " Vailima Letters/' he says : 

" When I was filling baskets all Saturday, in my 
dull, mulish way, perhaps the slowest worker there, 
surely the most particular, and the only one that 






> 

n 



OQ 







STEVENSON IN SAMOA. 101 

never looked up or knocked off, I could not but think 
I should have been sent on exhibition as an example 
to young literary men. 'Here is how to learn to 
write ' might be the motto. You should have seen 
us; the veranda was like an Irish bog, our hands 
and faces were bedaubed with soil, and Faauma was 
supposed to have struck the right note when she 
remarked (A propos of nothing), 'Too much eleele 
(soil) for me.' The cacao, you must understand, has 
to be planted at first in baskets of plaited cocoa-leaf.* 
From four to ten natives were plaiting these in the 
wood-shed. Four boys were digging up soil and 
bringing it by the boxful to the veranda. Lloyd 
and I and Belle, and sometimes S. (who came to bear 
a hand), were filling the baskets, removing stones and 
lumps of clay; Austin and Faauma carried them 
when full to Fanny, who planted a seed in each, and 
then set them, packed close, in the corners of the 
veranda. From 12 on Friday till 5 p.m. on Saturday 
we planted the first 1,500, and more than 700 of a 
second lot. You cannot dream how filthy we were, 
and we were all properly tired." f 

Three years later he records : 

"I have been forbidden to work, and have been 

* Leaf of the coco-nut palm. 

t See plates facing pp. 27 and 29. 



102 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

instead doing my two or three hours in the plantation 
every morning. I only wish somebody would pay me 
£10 a day for taking care of cacao, and I could leave 
literature to others." 

Cacao cultivation in this island of Upolu has 
since that date developed wonderfully, and is 
attracting much attention, the first produce 
having been sold in Hamburg at a very high 
price. The consular report on Samoa published 
in February, 1903, states that "the mainstay 
of Samoa is cocoa/' and it will be interesting 
to follow the progress of an industry of which 
the versatile Scotchman was an early pioneer. 



APPENDIX L 

ANCIENT MANUFACTURE OF COCOA. 

Most of the operations described are only 
the performance on a large scale by modern 
machinery of those employed by the Mexicans, 
and by those who learned from them, of whom 
we read : 

" For this purpose they have a broad, smooth stone, 
well polished or glazed very hard, and being made fit 
in all respects for their use, they grind the cacaos 
thereon very small, and when they have so done, they 
have another broad stone ready, under which they 
keep a gentle fire. 

"A more speedy way for the making up of the 
cacao into chocolate is this : They have a mill made 
in the form of some kind of malt -mills, whose 
stones are firm and hard, which work by turning, 
and upon this mill are ground the cacaos grossly, and 
then between other stones they work that which is 
[103] 



104 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

ground yet smaller, or else by beating it up in a 
mortar bring it into the usual form." 

A later writer remarks of this process : 

"The Indians, from whom we borrow it, are not 
very nice in doing it; they roast the kernels in 
earthen pots, then free them from their skins, and 
afterwards crush and grind them between two stones, 
and so form cakes of it with their hands." 




A MEXICAN METATE, OB GRINDING STONE. 

And, further on, in speaking of the Spaniards' 
mode of preparation, he says : 

" They put them (the kernels) into a large mortar 
to reduce them to a gross powder, which they after- 
wards grind upon a stone. They make choice of a 
stone which naturally resists the fire, from sixteen to 
eighteen inches broad, and about twenty-seven or 
thirty long and three in thickness, and hollowed in 



ANCIENT MANUFACTURE. 105 

the middle about one inch and a half deep. Under 
this they place a pan of coals to heat the stone, so 
that the heat makes it easy for the iron roller to 
make it so fine as to leave neither lump nor the least 
hardness." 

At the present day, when the beans are 
plentiful on the cacao estates, but no machines 
for manufacture exist, the planters prepare a 
palatable drink by roasting the beans on a 
moving shovel or pan over the open fire, husk- 
ing them by the time-honoured plan of tossing 
in the breeze, and grinding out on a flat 
stone in much the same manner as did the 
old Spaniards. The writer has even seen a 
little tobacco-press ingeniously adapted for the 
purpose of extracting the butter, the invention 
of Mr. J. H. Hart, of the Trinidad Botanical 
Gardens, a gentleman who has done much in 
the direction of investigating the best cacao 
for seed, and the most favourable methods of 
cultivation. 



APPENDIX II. 

BOURNVILLE WOBKS SUGGESTION SCHEME. 



OBJECTS. 

December, 1902. 

The objects in view are : 

1. To encourage our employes to make all the 
suggestions they can for the mutual welfare of the 
business and everyone connected with it. Even the 
smallest suggestion may be of value. 

2. To enable those in our employ to share in the 
benefit of the suggestions they make, and to receive 
personal recognition for them. 

3. To insure harmonious relations between all 
sections of the work. 



PBIZES. 

Prizes of the undermentioned values will be given 
half-yearly for suggestions meriting reward : 

Men's Departments. — One of £10; two of £5; two 
of £2 10s. ; ten of £1 ; fifteen of 10s. ; thirty of 5s. 
L106] 



SUGGESTION SCHEME. 107 

Girls* Departments. — One of £5 ; two of £2 ; eight 
of £1 ; fifteen of 10s. ; thirty of 5s. 

The following list will indicate on what lines 
suggestions may be made : 

1. Comfort, safety, or health of employes. 

2. Means by which waste of material may be 
avoided. 

3. Saving of time or expense. 

4. Improvements in machinery or in methods of 
working. 

5. Introduction of new goods, or new ideas. 

6. Calling attention to any existing defects. 

7. Suggestions affecting athletic and other clubs 
and societies, libraries, magazine, etc. 

8. Any suggestion not included in the above list 
will be welcomed. 

REGULATIONS. 

Everyone, including foremen and forewomen, is 
encouraged to make suggestions which, if of value, 
will be eligible for the prizes mentioned above (ex- 
cepting those sent in by foremen and forewomen). 

Suggestions should be written on or attached to the 
forms which will be found on each box, the boxes 
being fixed in the various departments, also in the 
entrance lodges, dining-rooms, and recreation grounds. 
Suggestions can be placed in any of these. 



108 "THE FOOD OF THE GODS." 

It is imperative that all particulars at head of form, 
which will bear a distinctive number, should be 
carefully filled in. If this is not complied with no 
notice will be taken of suggestions. Forms may be 
taken from the book and filled up at home. 

All suggestions will be acknowledged by a notice 
posted on the boards once a week, giving a list of the 
printed numbers on the suggestion forms received for 
consideration. 

Should any number not appear in this list a com- 
munication should at once be sent to the Secretary. 

Those who have left the employ of the firm are 
entitled to prizes for any suggestions made whilst 
they were here, unless they should leave through 
misconduct. 

The suggestions are considered weekly by the com- 
mittees with a member of the firm, and are dealt 
with in the order in which they are received. They 
are finally judged by the firm at the end of May and 
November, and prizes distributed before the summer 
holidays and at the Christmas gathering. 

Every effort is made by the committees to keep the 
names of the suggestors strictly private. 



APPENDIX III. 

THE EARLY COCOA HOUSES. 

At No. 64, St. James's Street is the " Cocoa Tree 
Club/' In the reign of Queen Anne there was a 
famous chocolate-house known as the " CocoaTree," 
a favourite sign to mark that new and fashionable 
beverage. Its frequenters were Tories of the strictest 
school. De Foe tells us in his "Journey through 
England," that "a Whig will no more go to the 
1 Cocoa Tree ' . . . than a Tory will be seen at the 
coffee-house of St. James's." In course of time the 
" Cocoa Tree " developed into a gaming-house and 
a club. 

As a club, the " Cocoa Tree " did not cease to keep 
up its reputation for high play. Although the 
present establishment bearing the name dates its 
existence only from the year 1853, the old chocolate- 
house was probably converted into a club as far back 
as the middle of the last century. Lord Byron was a 
member of this club, and so was Gibbon, the historian. 
—From " Old and New Loncfon," Cassell & Co. 
[109] 



NOTE. 

Reference in detail to the numerous authorities who have been 
laid under contribution for this brochure would be out of place 
in so popular a compilation, but the writer desires to depress his 
special indebtedness to " Cocoa : All about It" by "HUtorieus" 
not only for facts, but also for some of his illustrations. To 
Messrs. Cadbury, too, he is indebted for permission to use 
several of the illustrations, as well as for much valuable 
information. 



" ' ■'• . . ." . >'-^?v^ ■ :■ : .;.:;"" ■ #, ;;.'. ■■ ;> ; » 7 : -^ vT?>" *$p 



-. "v 



i 



' 



: .;: :. : , '